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68 Cards in this Set

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What is the gram reaction of Enterobacteriaceae
Gram - Rods
What catalase reactions do Enterobacteriaceae have
Catalase +
What Oxidase reactions do enterobacteriaceae have
Oxidase -
Do Enterobacteriacea form spores?
No
what is the Nitrate reaction with Enterobacteriaceae?
Nitrate reduced to Nitrite
What agar do Enterobacteriaceae grow well on?
MacConkey and Peptone based media without additional NaCl
What sugars do Enterobacteriaceae ferment?
Glucose with gas production.
Habitat of Salmonella typhi?
Humans only
What are habitats of "enterics"
GI Tract: animals, fish, humans, insects
Two organisms that cause Diarrheal dysenteric Illness
Shigella/Salmonella
Pneuomonia, Brick Red Sputum, Friedlander's Bacillus?
Klebsiella pneumoniae
What does endotoxin shock cause?
fever, leucopenia, capillary hemorrhage, hypotension, circulatory collapse.
What are endotoxins?
lipopolysaccharide that is part of gram - cell wall. Has 3 layers.
What are the three layers of endotoxin?
Outer variable carbohydrate portion, Middle core polysaccharide, central highly conserved lipid moiety (Lipid A)
What does the outer variable carbohydrate of endotoxin lipopolysaccharides determine?
Highly variable, determines the O-antigen specificity
What is K88?
K antigen in E. Coli
pili antigen
what class of antibody do Flagellar (H antigens elicit)?
IgG antibodies
What characteristics do Flagellar (H antigen) have?
Heat labile, external proteins, elicit IgG response
What characteristics do Somatic (O antigen) have?
polysaccharide antigens, composes outer LPS, heat stable, elicits IgM
what tribes are positive for mixed acid fermentation?
Tribes I Eschericheae
Tribe II Edwardsielleae
Tribe III Salmonelleae
Tribe IV Citrobacterereae
Tribe VI Proteeae
Tribe VII Yersinieae
What tribes are positive for Butanediol fermentation?
Tribe V Klebsielleae
What is the test for Butanediol fermentation? and what does it result in?
Voges proskaeur
Production of acetyl-methyl carbinol
In mixed acid fermentation what is fermented, and into what?
Glucose into acetic,lactic, and formic acids
pH drops below 4.4
What is the ratio of acid:neutral products in a positive methyl red test?
4:1
What is the ratio of Carbon dioxide to hydrogen in a positive methyl red test?
1:1
what is acetoin?
acetyl-methyl carbinol
What is the ratio of acid:netural in a positive Butanediol test?
1:6
what is the ratio of carbon dioxide:hydrogen in a positive butanediol test?
5:1
What are three glycolytic pathways
Embden-Meyerhof-Pathyway
Ebner Duderoff
Phospoketolase
Which pathway results in the formation of pyruvic acid from glucose
Embden-Meyerhof-Pathway
What sugars are in Kligler Iron Agar?
LActose and Glucose
10:1
What sugars are in Triple Sugar Iron agar slants?
Dextrose, LActose, and Glucose
what is Ferrous Sulfate for in KIA?
detection of H2S
What does no fermentation look like in KIA?
Red (K) Slant, Red (K) butt
What organism shows no fermentation in KIA?
Pseudomonas
what does Glucose fermentation look like in KIA?
Red (K) Slant, Yellow (A) Butt
What organisms are positive for glucose fermentation with no H2S production?
Shigella
What does Glucose fermentation with H2S production?
Red (K) Slant, Yellow (A) butt delayed, black precipitate in butt (reaction of H2S with Ferrous sulfate)
What does a glucose/lactose fermentation look like in KIA?
Yellow (A) Slant, Yellow (A) Butt
What organisms are positive for glucose fermentation and H2S production in KIA?
Citrobacter, Salmonella,Proteus
What organisms are positive for glucose and lactose fermentation in KIA?
Klebsiella, Enterobacter, E. Coli
What is MacConkey Agar selective for?
bile salts and crystal violet inhibit gram positive bacteria
How does MacConkey Agar differentiate for certain Enterobacteriaceae?
LActose is the only carbohydrate present
What does red on MacConkey agar signify?
pH drop below 6.8
Lactose fermentation positive
what do colorless colonies on MacConkey Agar signify?
pH is above 6.8, no lactose fermentation
Which Genus are strong lactose fermenters (red colonies on Mac A)
Escherichia, enterobacter, Klebsiella
Which genus are weak lactose fermenters (Pink or colorless colonies on Mac A)
Citrobacter, Providenciae, Serratia, and Hafnia
What sugars are in TSI?
Sucrose, Lactose, glucose
10 : 10 : 1
What types of organisms does Eosin MEthylene Blue differentiate?
LActose Fermenters and non-lactose fermenters
What color colonies do strong lactose fermenters produce on EMB?
Green black colonies with a metallic sheen
what color do weak lactose fermenters show on EMB?
Purple
What color do sucrose fermenters show on EMB?
purple to black
What is Hektoen agar selective for?
Recovery of Enterobacteriaceae
- especially Salmonella and Shigella
What reaction do rapid lactose fermenters have on Hektoen?
bright orange, pink

E.Coli
What results do Salmonella have on Hektoen
Blue green colonies with black centers
What results do Shigella have on HEktoen
Green colonies
What organisms show red colonies with black centers on XLD Agar?
Salmonella
What is XLD Agar used to confirm?
Shigella and Providencia

Just Red Colonies
What is another name for Selenite Broth?
Salmonella/Shigella Broth
SS Broth
What does Sodium Selnite inhibit and how?
E. Coli
Keeps it in lag phase
What does IMViC test for?
Indole, Methyl Red, Voges-Proskauer, and Citrate
What is a good test to differentiate E. Coli and Enterobacter aerogenes
IMViC
What results do E. Coli give for IMViC?
+ Indole, + Methyl Red, - Butanediol fermentation, - Citrate utilization
What results do Enterobacter aerogenes give for IMViC
- Indole, - Methyl Red, + Butanediol fermentation, + Citrate Utilization
what is a positive result on Christen's Urea agar? What Genus?
Red color change shows production of URease.

UTI Pathgoens: Proteus, Providencia, MOrganella
Which organisms are H2S positive
Edwardsiella tarda, Salmonella sp., Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaricus, Proteus mirabilis
What organisms are positive for butanediol fermentation?
Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Hafnia sp., Pantoea sp., Serratia sp.
Which organisms are positive for Phenylalanine deaminase?
Proteus sp., Morganella sp., Providencia sp.