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40 Cards in this Set

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he was deeply immersed in the enlightenment and its politics. son of a prime minister (had conflicted feelings about dynasties and corruption); very liberal, anti-catholic, fascinated, nonetheless with gothic history, builds strawberry hill- a mini castle.
-wrote castle of otranto- first gothic novel, famous account of origin in a dream
-specific political contrast was the Conway-Grenville Affair (actual Otranto story)
Themes of Castle of Otranto
*can be read as an allegory relating to real-life people
*interesting but limited
*theme of long-range causality (generations)
*exploration of the psychology of tyranny
*fascination with scale
*use of architecture as symbol
*theme of disorder and order
2 dimensions of enlightenment
* for: improvement and rationality
*against: irrationality, tradition, inequality, secrecy
French enlight focused on
more negatives
England enlight thinking focused on
positives; william and mary were very liberal
logical proposition based on axiom (self-evident truths)
syllogism (not an enlightenment trait)
experience writes all over our minds- blank slate
tabula rasa
a belief that what we know, we know through observation
observed prior empires and saw how families got started- generations- observation
philosophies of knowing
epistlary in church helps people to know what's up
"what we know for sure can only be based on what we observe and in order to formulate good insights, we need to use inductive reasoning"
Francis Bacon
-he came up with theory of gravity- apple falling from tree
-tried to apply mathematical terms to explain life
-white light = combination of colors
-wrote "Principia Mathematica" and had he not, our form of gov't may not exist
-wanted balance of politics and power
-God created gravity and was the "First Cause"
"Nature to be commanded, must be obeyed"
was promoter of Linnaen science- distinction between phylo and species- nature formed a system, order balance
-did study of rats b/c they are part of animal, veg, min world- study and observation
"Wake up from intellectual tutelage"
-wrote "What is Enlightenment?"
about the system by which things are distributed, disposed, and circulated. poetry about this. everything has an... ie. fluids- poem about movement of water
-suggests some kind of logic or scale
-wrote "Physicotheology"
-look at the clock. the maker was superior to it. now look at the world- organization, design.
-parallel rhyming couplets to show symmetry in world
-use of v. visual language
-circulation, the body, muscles, bones
medical hospital in NC
he said that everything has to be economized- within their own realm, a system that's predictable- suggests a plan
-wrote "The creation"
metals and veins of solid stone found
the philosophical basis for Pope's poem- the idea that all of creation had 4 aspects
1. all of nature forms a hierarchy or ladder chain all the way to God
2. Plentitude (god is so overwhelmingly creative that he filled the univ. with every poss thing)
3. Continuity (not too much of anything)
4. Optimism (god created the best of all poss worlds)
the great chain of being from Essay on Man- written to hault enlightenment thinking
"Man is only one link in the vast chain of being"
Pope, "Essay on Man"
"created half to rise, and half to fall" (puts us in the middle, not right under God)
-hierarchy (above...below)
employed reductio ad adsurdum to his work
Voltaire- "Candide"
-to reduce to the absurd. take a proposition and apply it in an absurd number of premises to prove it absurd
tends to have 2 traits:
1. involve grotesque scenarios
2. lots of philosophical dialogue amongst protagonist
-politically safer than attacking empire
Menippean Satire- Candide by Voltaire
"post hoc ergo propter hoc"
Voltaire from Candide- "after this therefore it caused this"
characterizes Candide by Voltaire:
picaresque narrative, lots of adventures, geograph mvmnt, lots of coincidence, chance encounters and escapes, no character develop., plot is driven by what happens to the likable picaro (hero)
Episodic Narrative
satire in which there's ONE strong moral compass, telling you what's right and wrong
Juvenalian, Horatian Satire
wrote "The Grumbling Hive"- talked about native americans in state of nature
-everyone had freedom, natural liberties
-everyone has to agree- contract- you cannot give up your natural laws, appoint judges and lawmakers that are nonbiased
-gov't needs to protect you through civil rights
-bumblebees hive is small but has social organization p.81
Bernard Mandeville
wrote "Common Sense"
-not influenced by polit party, but uses reason and principle
-uses logical arguments- baby mother, breast milk, ween
-title is another way of saying reason- self-evident, anyone can rationalize these ideas
-everything supports separation, geographically (physico theology)- looking at god's purpose, natural facts(Blackburn did this too)
-uses earthy analogies to make points
-not cerebral or abstract like Locke- parallel syntactical structure, repetition: "as a, and as, they have"
-progressive rhetoric: bigger and bigger words- "not city, county, country, but continent"
-uses space, time, history, makes cause and effect v. clear
"-native americans- tree belongs to no one, but plants and wood are yours"
used physicotheology (2)
Blackburn: "The Creation" p. 76

Paine: "Common Sense"
used logical argument of breast milk for England and America
prose in the form of dialogue.

he understood that when you attack someone, they're less likely to hear your POV

using bigger and bigger words: not city, county, country, but continent
progressive rhetoric

wrote "Occasional Letter on the Female Sex"
deliberate exaggeration to create a certain effect

Paine "Occasional Letter on the Female Sex"

ie. almost, without exception, at all times
believed climate effected people's behavior
opposing tyranny where he finds it
wrote "On the Equality of the Sexes"
Judith Sargent Murray
-what you were born as vs. what you were raised as
-women have been less educated than men
-eve at apple for knowledge, adam, sex
-never says women should have equal roles, just says women should stop knitting sweaters, etc.
-education won't detract from motherly, housewife roles (119)
Judith Sargent Murray

"On the Equality of the Sexes"
did comparative anatomy- men and women's anatomy diff.
-intro to nuclear fam. when from being lg. units to small
-concept of countervailing forces- everything works together to form perfect union
-men need women to dominate
-women need men to be admired
-teeth inside clock- diff. directions, but need each other b/c if one speeds up, won't change balance. men prevail over women (p.107)
Rousseau and Conte
everything works together to form a perfect union
counterveiling forces

-Conte & Rousseau