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496 Cards in this Set

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to spay a cat where should you make your incision?
begin incision at middle third of caudal abdomen
why is spaying a cat different from dogs?
the body of the uterus is more caudal and more difficult to exteriorize
feline roundworm
Toxacara cati, leoni
feline hookworm
Ancylostoma tubaeforma
lungworm of cats
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
stomach worm of cats
Ollulanus tricuspus
tapeworms of dogs and cats
Dipylidium caninum
Spirometra mansinoides
feline bile and pancreatic duct worm
Platynosomum concinnum
how is the cat infected with Platynosomum concinnum?
infected thru ingestion of infected lizards
coccidian of cats
Isospora felis and rivolta
Etiology of Ear Mites in cats
Otodectes cynotis
how is otitis externa different in dogs and cats?
ear mites are responsible for 50% of otitis externa in the cat (only 5-10% in the dog)
what prevents further infestation of ear mites in cats?
Many cats acquire an immune response that prevents further infestation
What are some Predisposing factors to ear mites?
1. Poor conformation – narrow ear canal, hair, floppy, heavy ears
2. Obstruction of canal from acute inflammation or tumor
3. Systemic dzs – Felv, FIV can predispose to otitis externa
why should you acess the tympanic membrane with an ear mite infection?
– lack of membrane may indicate middle ear dz
Best treatments for earmites in cats?
Revolution, Mitaclear, Acarexx or milbemycin oxime
Fungal cause of otitis externa
Malassezia most common
Treatment for a fungal agent causing otitis externa
Conofite or Tresaderm
Treatment for a bacterial agent causing otitis externa
Silver sulfadiazine
which of the antibiotics used for otitis externa is oto-toxic?
complication of otitis externa?
Otitis media
extra tx for otitis externa complicated by otitis media
systemic treatments
Aerobic agents of abcesses?
Pasteurella multocida, beta hemolytic strept, Bacteroides, Fusiform bacilli, Actinomyces
name the anaerobic causes of abcesses
Clostridium, Bacteroides, Peptostreptococci, Enterobacteria
How long does it take after initial injury for an abcess to occur?
2-4 days
Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin, amoxicillin, Chloramphenicol, Metronizadozole
Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by aerobic bacteria
Amoxicillin, Oxacillin, Cephalexin
Antibiotics used for abcesses caused by clostridium
high dose penicillin
what is the etiology for Feline rhinotracheitis virus
these two agents account for 85-90%of the feline upper respiratory infection complex
Rhino and calicivirus
how many feet can a virus travel to infect a cat with resp. dz?
4 ft
Most cats develop a carrier state after acute natural infection with what agents?
feline rhino, calicivirus and chlamidia
oropharyngeal vesicles or ulcers caused by resp viruses cause this Clinical sign?
use these antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections assoc with upper respiratory viruses
Ampicillin, Amoxi, Doxycycline, Chloramphenicol
what do you vax against to prevent upper resp inf?
Rhino and Calici virus only; Chlamidia is not recommended b/c of low incidence in single cat households
Flea Allergy dermatitis (FAD) is caused by?
Allergic reaction to bites inflicted by Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, or Pulex irritans
what causes FAD?
Caused by hypersensitivity to allergens and haptens in flea saliva
immune response assoc by Hypersensitivity Type I
immune response assoc by Hypersensitivity Type IV
cell mediated immunity
what is the difference between the hypersensitivity rxn to fleas in the cat versus the dog?
Only immediate hypersensitivity has been reported in the cat (can have immediate and delayed in the dog)
where are the lesions located with FAD?
lesions over posterior one third of body
type of dermatitis on head and neck of cats assoc with FAD
Miliary dermatitis
Insect Development Inhibitor used to treat fleas
what can you give for pruritis assoc with FAD?
give Pred in decreasing doses then stop or continue at lowest effective dose
is ONLY effective tx for FAD
Strict flea eradication
viruses causing conjuncivitis in cats?
Rhino, Calicivirus
bacteria causing conjuncivitis in cats?
Gram positive cocci, coliforms, mycoplasma
MC foriegn body causing conjunctivitis in cats?
plant material
parasites causing conjuncivitis in cats?
Thelazia, Cuterebra, Dirofilaria
eyelid diseases causing conjunctivitis?
trichiasis, distichiasis, ectopic cilia, eyelid masses, tumors, chalazia
insults to the conjunctiva can cause these things?
induce vasodilation and neutrophilic/lymphocytic infiltrates
long term insult to the conjunctiva induces?
squamous metaplasia of epithelium, loss of conjunctival goblet cells, lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates and lymphoid follicle formation
used to dx conjunctivits
Schirmers tear and fluroescein stain; obtain cultures before stain use
Differentials for conjunctivitis
sclertis, uveitis, glaucoma, keratitis
Antihistamines used with conjunctivitis
Antzoline or Naphazoline
Antzoline is this type of med?
H1 antagonist
Naphazoline is this type of med?
NSAIDS used for conjunctivitis?
Flurbiprofen, Suprofen, Diclofenac, Detorolac
– improves health of cornea and conjunctiva for KCS
Cyclosporin (Optimmune)
contraindicated in primary infectious conjunctivits or when corneal ulcer is present
should be used w/ caution in cats w/ conjunctivitis
Topical corticosteroids or NSAIDs
why should NSAIDS and steriods be used w/ caution in cats w/ conjunctivitis
b/c concerns about recrudescent feline herpesvirus
Bacteria Frequently isolated with cystitis
E coli, Staph intermedius, Strep, Proteus, Klebsiella or Pseudomonas
fungi Frequently isolated with cystitis
Torulopsis, Candida, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, Aspergillus
MC way cystitis is caused
Ascending through the urethra is most common (but can also be descending or lymphatic in origin)
Predisposing factors for cystits include...
steroid tx, catheterization, sx alteration, uroliths, or outflow obstruction
sequele of cystitis
pyelonephritis, prostatitis, septicemia, struvites, granulomatous urethrocystitis, polyps, urinary incontinence or emphysematous cystitis
number of bacteria to dx cystitis
must be over 10^5 per mL to be detected in urine sediment
perform this prior to Ab therapy with cystitis
Urine culture and sensitivity
used to treat Gram + causes of cystitis
used to treat Gram - causes of cystitis
Fluroquinolones or sulfonamides
First time relapsing UTI: treat how?
4-6 weeks of Ab
treat Subsequent relapsing UTI for how long
6-8 weeks
used to treat fungal causes of cystitis
why do you use Flucytosine to treat fungal causes of cystits?
achieves high concentrations in urine
Culture urine after initiation of antibiotics in this amnt of time with cystitis?
Culture urine 3-5 days after initiation of Ab to ensure proper Ab selection
obtain urine culture by this method?
how to know if you have effectively treated cystitis?
Culture again 3-5 days after the drug is discontinued
How do you monitor for recurrent cystitis infections?
Culture every 3-6 months to monitor recurrent infections
Monitor theses pts that may have altered natural host defenses for development of UTI
persistent catheterization, steroid use, chemotherapy, diabetes mellitus, perineal urethrostomies
Idiopathic hematuria and dysuria in cats w/ith or without obstruction
Causes of Atypical UTI
fungal, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, parasitic
What are the recent trends in feline urotlithiasis?
1. Decreased struvide stones
2. Reduced frequency of recurrent urethral obstruction needing urethrostomies
3. Persistent inflammatory idiopathic dz regardless of dietary management
4. Increase in Ca oxalate stones
What is the possible viral cause of FLUTD
1. Feline syncytia-forming virus (FeSFV) – not been proven
2. Feline Herpes virus – experimental only
3. Feline calicivirus – perhaps due to calicivirus-like particles in urethral plugs
How common is bacteria as the cause of stones
RARE as the primary cause especially in younger cats

In older cats, bacterial UTI is more likely, especially in renal failure cats – up to 25%
What human dz is FLUTD similar
Intersititial cystitis
how is FLUTD in cats similar to Intersititial cystitis in humans?
1. Unknown etiology
2. Sterile urine
3. Hemorrhagic lesions visible on cystoscopy
4. Some microscopic changes in bladder mucosa
5. Increase mast cells in bladder
6. Decreased urinary GAGs
how is FLUTD in cats different from Intersititial cystitis in humans?
1. Persisitent, chronic infection in humans
2. Not usually associated w/ hematureia in women
what does the UA look like on FLUTD cats?
the UA has blood and is concentrated
signalment for FLUTD
- Young, adult cats 2- 6 years
- Males and females equally
- Neutered cats of both sexes seem to be at increased risk
Males are more likely to become obstructed with this in FLUTD
muco-crystalline plugs
time of year that FLUTD is increased risk with outdoor cats
what environmental reasons increase the risk for FLUTD?
--fat cats that are seditary
--dirty litterboxes cause the cat doesn't wanna pee or poop in dirty boxes so they hold it
--Water intake and urine volume
what diet predisposes cats to FLUTD
dry cat food because it has high magnesium
why is there an increased risk of FLUTD in cats with anxiety?
increase in mast cell and histamine release
what anatomic feature in the cat predisposes it to FLUTD?
Vescicourachal remnant or diverticuli may cause incomplete emptying of the bladder
- Most recover is 5-7 days regardless of treatment
- SQ fluids to males to avoid blockage
Contraindicated in cats w/ bacterial UIT or indwelling catheters
with FLUTD only use steroids if....
a. Obstruced cats w/ traumatic catheterization
b. Refractory non-bacterial LUTD w/ unhappy client
Used this drug with FLUTD:
Amitryptyline (Elavil)-Anti-anxiety drug that also is a a mild analgesic, sedative, antihistaminic & anticholinergic
side effects of amitryptyline
increased liver enzymes, wt gain, poor hair coat and urine retention
med used with FLUTD to decrease urethral spasms and therefore decrease pain
can give this med for pain assoc with FLUTD
can give this med for stress assoc with FLUTD
avoid these foods to prevent FLUTD
-Avoid food high in ash & mineral

- Avoid Fish
give this kind of food to prevent FLUTD
canned food
what is Pentosan polysulfate and why is it used with FLUTD?
Pentosan polysulfate is a synthetic polysaccharide that mimics or replaces GAG layer coating the bladder
what specifically does Pentosan polysulfate do?
a. helps prevent adherence of bacteria, crystals or proteins to bladder epithelia
b. limits the mucosal permeability to noxious substances in urine
Antispasmodic agents provide this with FLUTD?
- Symptomatic relief of pollakiruia, dysuria & stranguria
Anticholinergic that decrease the frequency of urination
Oxybutynin, not propantheline
Alpha antagonists that may minimize resistance in pre-prostatic and prostatic urethra
Phenoxybenzamine, Prazosin
primary adverse effect with Alpha antagonists
skeletal muscle relaxants used with FLUTD
Dantolene or diazepam
what does flushing the bladder with DMSO or cool saline do?
stimulate degranulation of mast cells and may ‘exhaust and flush’ sensory neuropeptides & inflammatory mediators
Avoid this when treating FLUTD
- Phenopyridine
- Methylene blue
- Urinary acidifiers
- Abs
spraying of urine occurs on this surface....
a vertical surface: if pee is on a horizontal surface the cat isn't spraying it is just pissing where it isn't supposed to
anti-anxiety meds that can decrease the incidence of spraying
Amitriptyline, Diazempam, Buspirone, Clomipramine, Megestrol acetate
MC behavior problem in cats
Second MC behavior problem in cats
technical name of declawing a cat
procedure performed to prevent retraction of P3
Tendonectomy of Deep digital flexor
Claw remains in retracted position b/c
dorsal elastic ligament
Dental Neck Lesions
feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL), cervical line lesions, feline caries
pathophys for FORL
abnormal odontoclast activity
what do FORL lesions look like?
appear as cavities in the teeth
Where do FORL lesions occur?
at or near the cemento-enamel junction arising from the gingival margin (gumline)
what causes a resorptive lacunae with FORL?
· Cavities are lined w/ odontoclasts which are constantly resorpting dental material by degrading dentine by decalcification
what is the normal function of odontoclasts?
The normal function of odontoclasts is to remove the roots of deciduous teeth as the permanent teeth erupt and hence the deciduous crown is lost
how does the lesion occur with FORL?
– these odontoclasts become reactivated by some stimulus - so it eats a hole in the tooth
what makes FORL lesions painful?
The process exposes the dentinal tubules which is extremely painful and granulation tissue proliferates from the gum over the lesion
what do FORL lesions invade
invades the enamel or cementum and even the pulp – the root can separate from the crown and the crown will be lost (probe thorugh the area where a root should be)
only effective treatment for FORL lesions?
what part of GI tract does Toxicara cati infest?
Small intestine of cats
3 modes of transmission of Toxicara cati
1. Direct – tracheal migration
2. Ingestion of parantenic host – somatic migration in parantenic host
3. Lactogenic (transmammary) – no migration
Ascarid of both cats and dogs
Toxacaris leonina
how is Toxacaris leonine different from T. cati?
Three Depths of Corneal Ulcers
1. Superficial erosion (corneal epithelium only)
2. Stromal ulcer – both epithelium and some stroma
3. Descemetocele – stroma down to Descemet’s membrane
virus that can case corneal ulcers
Feline Herpesvirus
eyelid diseases that can cause corneal ulcers
distichiasis, ectopic cilia, entropion
Feline herpes is assoc with what type of resp dz?
Upper respiratory disease
where does herpes stay latent at?
trigeminal ganglia and perhaps corneal cells
when latent herpes virus is reactivated by stress or topical steroids, what usually happens that is different from initial infection?
· When virus is reactivated by stress or topical steroids, signs of upper resp infection are usually absent
virus causing progressive polyarthritis
Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV)
most cats with Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV) also have...
FelV or FIV;
how does Feline Syncytium-forming Virus (FeSFV)cause arthritis?
from chronic antigenic stimulation and immune complex deposition
other causes of infectious polyarthritis?
calcivirus, mycoplasmosis
what causes Erosive polyarthritis (Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis)
– it is immune mediated:
deposition of immune complexes in the joint
how do you diagnose Erosive polyarthritis (Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis)
serology test for Rheumatoid factor (RF) is positive and NEGATIVE for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA)
MC cause of nonerosive polyarthritis?
systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE)
SLE has been assoc with...
diskospondylitis, enteropathy, bacterial endocardiits, and drugs
Type of Hypersensitivity Rxn with SLE?
Type III hypersensitivity reaction formation and deposition of immune complexes and autoantibody formation (dx via LE cells
Dx of SLE?
positive for ANA and negative for RF
what is a Trichobezoar
a hairball
what type of problem is feline acne?
Follicular problem –
where does feline acne MC occur?
cause of feline acne?
Plastic bowls: · Recommend owner to change feed bowls to stainless steel
Tx of Feline Acne
Abs (Enrofloxacin, Cephalexin, Tetracycline), Retin A, topical shampoos, Listerine, malacetic wet wipes
CS include vomiting, anorexia, large or small animal D+, enterocolitis
Inflammatory Bowel Dz
induces an infectious enteritis and mesenteric lymphadeopathy
Feline panleukopenia (feline distemper, feline parvovirus)
– eosinophilic infiltrates in multiple organs
Hyperesosinophilic syndrome of cats
Hyperesosinophilic syndrome of cats from neoplasia?
mature eosinophils differentiates from neoplasia
Type of hypersensitivity with food allergies that occurs within minutes to hours after ingestion
Type I hypersensitivity – within minutes to hours after ingestion
Type of hypersensitivity with food allergies that occurs within hours to days of ingestion
Type IV hypersensitivty delayed w/in hours to days of ingestion
offending allergen in 50% of cats w/ food allergy
type of collitis with food allergies in cats?
lymphocytic plasmacytic colitis
food allergy dermatitis won't respond to this tx?
Lack of response to steroids or other anti-inflammatories
tx for severe pruitis assoc with food allergy dermatitis?
virus induced Cardiomyopathy in cats?
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
MC cardiomyopathy in cats?
deficiency assoc with DCM in cats?
CS assoc with HCM in cats
Middle aged, male cats
Pleural effusion (right sided heart failure)
Heart murmurs
Gallop thyrthm or other arrhythmias
MM are pale and muddy
Easily stressed and fragile
Thrombosis – blood can clot, turbulent flow causing paralysis of rear legs
what dz should you rule out in cats with HCM
heart shape with HCM?
Biatrial enlargement – ‘Valentine shaped heart’
seen on ECHO with HCM?
a. Very thick papillary muscles
b. Biatrial enlargement – ‘Valentine shaped heart’
c. Endocardial fibrosis
d. Left outflow obstruction
e. SAMMS – HOCM – seen w/ thick, venticular contraction
is HCM a diastolic or systolic dysfunction?
diastolic dysfunction
need the heart to relax to have to fill
drug that is contraindicated with HCM
an ionotrope like digoxin
Need to slow down w/ b blockers or Ca channel blockers
used to slow the heart down with HCM
a. Atenolol - b
b. Diltiazem - Ca
c. Enalapril – ACE inhibitor
d. Aspirin – prevents thromoembolism
don't use these two cardio drugs at the same time?
b blockers or Ca blockers
MC cause of Interstitial Nephritis in all animals?
3 infectious agents causing interstitial nephritis in any species
1. Lepto
2. E. coli
3. EIA
E. coli causes what kidney dz in calves
white spotted kidney dz in calves
Type of Lepto in cattle and pigs?
L. pomona in cattle and pigs
Type of Lepto in dogs?
L. canicola & icterohemorrhagica in dogs
Explain the pathophys of how Lepto causes interstitial nephritis.
Lepto causes bacteremia, bacteria migrate out of vessels into lumen of tubules and replicate; reinfect epithelial cells and cause lymphocytic plasmacytic inflammation to antigens of lepto. Antiges die in tubular epithelial cells
Cats with this disease should be evaluated for hyperthyroidism...
MC (95%) cause of hyperthyroid in a cat....
Hyperplastic Thyroid
(Benign Thyroid Adenoma)
Less common (5%) cause of hyperthyroidism...
Malignant Thyroid Adenocarcinomas
Cardio CS assoc with Hyperthyroidism in cats?
Tachycardia & heart murmur (gallop rhythm)
Clin path with hyperthyroidism
Increased Liver Enzymes
Increase PCV
What 3 things will you see on a ECG in cats with hyperthyroidism?
1. Sinus tachycardia (> 240 bpm)
2. Increased R wave (ventricular concentric hypertrophy)
3. Atrial premature complexes
Best tests to diagnose Hyperthyroidism?
T3 Suppression Test
Why not just measure T3 to dx hyperthyroidism?
T3 is usually elevated anyway
Why may T4 levels not give you the results you want in suspected hyperthyroidism?
they fluctuate a lot
What are three cons of a thyroidectomy to tx hyperthyroidism?
1.Patients are an increased anesthetic risk
2. Iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism (accidently take out parathyroid)
3. Hyperthyroidism can reoccur – take out capsule, too and leave 1 of the parathyroids
What are some antithyroid meds that can be used to treat hyperthyroidism?
1. Tapazol: Methimazole
2. Propylthioouracil (PTU)
how do antithyroid drugs work to tx hyperthyroidism?
Not cytotoxic but block thyroid hormone synthesis
Best, Easiest and safest way to treat hyperthyroidism, but is expensive
Radioactive Iodine
if radioactive iodine doesn't work to reduce T4 levels in hyperthyroidism, then what does the cat probably have?
thyroid carcinoma
MC uroliths in cats and dogs?
Struvite (Mg ammonium)
How can UTI's cause struvite uroliths?
UTIs w/ urease producing bacteria (Staph, Proeus, Ureaplasma) can cause struvites by increasing the amount of ammonium ions and alkalinizing the urine
if clin path shows Hypercalcemia or acidosis then you probably have this type of urolith?
Ca oxalate or Ca phosphate calculi
if alkaline urine then you probably have this type of urolith?
if in neutral to acid urine then you probably have this type of urolith?
Ammonium urate and Silica
this urolith occurs in acid urine
Cystine calculi
this urolith can occur at any pH
Ca oxalate
often assoc with UTI's
Most common emergency seen in male cats
Urinary Obstruction
blood gases with urinary obstruction shows a.....
metabolic acidosis
electrolytes with urinary obstruction show...
why is hyperkalemia harmful?
Hyperkalemia causing life-threatening arrhythmias due to automaticity of SA node
what do calcium levels do in an obstructed cat?
hypocalcemia w/o clinical signs b/c phosphorus is so high, so Ca shifts down
Clin Path with urinary obstruction
Increased PCV & TP
Increased Glucose
Increased BUN
type of azotemia with urinary obstruction
post renal azotemia
What is the first step in manageing a sick obstructed cat?
take care of the heart and monitor the hyperkalemia
fluids used with obstructed cat because have little potassium?
Lactated Ringers or Normasol R
fluids to use if severe hyperkalemia from obstruction
0.45% NaCl with 2.5% Dextrose with 1 mEq/kg of Sodium Bicarb (NaHCO3)
three things used to treat hyperkalemia
1. Insulin and Dextrose
2. Calcium Gluconate
3. Sodium Bicarb
why is dextrose used in hyperkalemia?
shifts K+ into the cell
(glucose pulls potassium out of the blood and into the cell with it)
used to protect the heart in hyperkalemia
Calcium Gluconate
What does the sodium bicarb do?
corrects the acidemia: this will drive the potassium back into the cells
Step 2 in treating an obstructed cat?
Anesitize the cat
good induction for obstructed cat?
Step 3 in treating an obstructed cat?
Remove the obstruction
in trying to relieve the obstruction, what do you do?
first try to pass a catheter-
try to flush stones back into bladder-
what do you do if the blockage won't pass?
do a cystocentesis to empty the bladder: only do one stick: use a stop cock for continual removal
what can be used to reduce urethral spasms
Dex plus lidocaine
Step 4 in managing an obstructed cat?
flush bladder and attach closed drainage system
how long should you leave the urinary catheter in the cat?
Leave in place until urine is clear and cat is no longer azotemic
what occurs after diuresis in cats treated for obstruction?
Hypokalemia – develops due to solute diuresis
what should you add to fluids once potassium levels are normal?
Add 20 mEq KCl to each liter
Monitor these clin path levels after tx an obstructed cat
Monitor Na, K, Ca, P, BUN, CREA, PCV & TP
why must you taper the cat off fluids?
Must taper off fluids to prevent medullary washout
what 4 things do you see with hypokalemia?
1. Ileus
2. Muscle weakness – plantograde stance
3. Cervico flexion of the neck
4. Respiratory paralysis b/c diaphragm doesn’t work
if a cat reblocks three times what should you do?
perineal urethrostomy
hypophosphotemia can cause these two things...
HEMOLYSIS and muscle weakness
stones are in the bladder and kidneys (not urethra)
calcium oxalate
Associated w/ chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity
Feline Asthma
what type of airway obstruction does feline asthma cause?
A lower airway obstruction
The difference between allergic bronchitis (found in dogs) and bronchial asthma in cats is...
a. Allergic bronchitis – large number of eosinophils in tracheobronchial secretion (seen in dogs); is a Type I hypersensitivity
b. Asthma is acute, spontaneous bronchoconstriction
pathophys of feline asthma...
The bronchial smooth muscle hypercontracts in response to multiple stimuli inducing hypersecretion of mucus and submucosa edema causing generalized small airway obstruction
Immune system reponse with Feline Asthma...
IgE antigen links w/ Ab fixed to mast cells
mediators causing direct bronchoconstriction in feline asthma...
histamine, serotonin, PAF, trhomboxane A2, leukotriences and oxygen radicals
breed predisposition for Feline Asthma?
Indicates a grave prognosis with feline asthma
Wheezes and/or crackles on auscultation
CS with feline asthma
sudden onset of expiratory effort and wheezing
See on rads with feline asthma
at the END of expiration show peribronchial cuffing
initial treatment for feline asthma
Bronchodilators – Terbutaline
Maintenance therapy for feline asthma
Long acting Theophylline
Painless, unilateral or bilateral erosion on the upper lip of cats
Eosinophilic ulcers
intense pruritis on haired skin including ventral abdomen, inner thigh, face, neck and base of tail; well circumscribed rasied areas; surface is often bright red and ulcerated, may ooze
Eosinophilic plaques
– caudal thigh, chin, lips and ears; well circumscribed raised, firm to hard, nodcular or linear masses
Eosinophilic granulomas
type of hypersensitivity with eosinophilic dermatitis
Type I hypersensitivity
cause of eosinophilic dermatitis
reaction due to flea allergy, atopy, insect bite or food allergy
if the eosinophilic dermatitis is nonseasonal, and occurs on the head, ears and lips what is the likely cause?
food allergy
if the eosinophilic dermatitis is seasonal, neck, abdomen, base of tail or inner thigh, miliary dermatitis what is the likely cause?
flea allergy
if the eosinophilic dermatitis becomes increasingly refractory to Ab or steroids what is the likely cause?
tx for eosinophilic plaques
Clean w/ chlorhexidine shampoo, Amicillin, E collar, bandages, adhesive nail covers, cotton stockinette to prevent continued self trauma, Acepromazine or Chlorpheniramine to alleviate pruritis
tx for indolent ulcer
– Ab (TMS, Cefadroxil, Amoxi) for 21 days, Steroids (Pred, Methylprednisolone, Chlorambucil, Chrysotherapy)
why shouldn't you use steroids with antibiotics?
Abs b/c interfere w/ wound healing and body’s cellular response to bacterial infections
MC cause of an aural hematoma
underlying otitis externa
where does an aural hematoma develop?
w/in the auricular cartilage
tx for aural hematoma
Sx drainage – teat cannula placement
virus causing chronic sinusits?
Calicivirus or Rhinotracheitis virus
most common cause of secondary bacterial rhinitis
dental disease
fungal dz causing chronic sinusitis?
Cryptococcus, Sprothrix, Aspergillus, Histoplasma
parasite causing chronic sinusitis?
Gapeworm (Syngamus ierei)
MC neoplasia causing chronic sinusitis
Reverse sneezing is a forceful inspiration associated w/ irritation of what...
dorsal nasopharyngeal mucosa
conditions causing unilateral nasal discharge
foreign body, dental dz, asprergillosis, neoplasia
conditions causing bilateral nasal discharge
infectious agents, cilial dyskinesia, IgA deficiency
· Increased mobilization of fatty acids to the liver due to Diabetes mellitus or starvation or conditions associated w/ malnutrition, and obesity
hepatic lipidosis
to get definative dx of hepatic lipidosis what do you do?
liver biopsy
what do you do before a liver biopsy?
check coag panel
type of diet to use with hepatic lipidosis
high protein, calorie dense diet will mobilize lipids from the liver
appetitie stimulant for cats with hepatic lipidosis
Cyprohepatdine – serotonin antagonist
contraindicated with hepatic lipidosis
Benzodiazepams and Steroids
Signs are distorted masticatory movements, halitosis, inappetence, bleeding from gums and ptyalism
Lymphoplasmacytic Stomatitis
describe lesions with Lymphoplasmacytic Stomatitis
· Raised, eroxive, proliferative, or erythematous lesions that may have concurrrent ulcerative and nodular appearances in the mouth
tx for Lymphoplasmacytic Stomatitis
aggressive anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive meds
a. Pred
b. Megestrol acetate
c. Azathioprine
d. Chlorambucil
e. Aurothioglucose
f. Abs
g. Dental extraction is a last resort
with Feline Vestibular dz, is it central or periperal?
peripheral vestibular disorder (head tilt, falling, circling, rolling, horizontal or rotary nystagumus)
NO BRAIN STEM SIGNS occur with feline vestibular dz meaning...
NO depression, loss of consciousness, postural deficitns or other cranial nerve deficient
tx for feline vestibular dz
Meclizine antihistamine and motion sickness drug
Reduction or absence of lacrimal secretion
can cause Corneal ulceration, conjuncvitivis, blepharospasm
dx of KCS
Schirmer’s tear test (STT)
--Normal >16 for cats (>21 in dogs)
tx for KCS
Topical Cyclosporin (Optimmune)
Suppruative inflammation of the renal pelvis and Renal parenchyma
cause of Pyelonephritis
Caused by Urogenous (ascending) bacterial infections usually due to enteric bacteria
bacterial agents that can be involved with pyelonephritis
1. E. coli
2. Pseudomonas
3. Staphylococcus
4. Streptococcus
5. Corybacteriaum renale in cattle
6. C. suis in pigs
pathophys of pyelonephritis
· A primary lower urinary tract bacterial infection causes anabnormal vesicoureteral reflux à ascending infection (ureteritis) à pyelitis (suppurative inflammation of the renal pelvis, renal papilla or medullary crest) à pyelonephritis
lesions with pyelonephritis
a. Commonly bilateral
b. Dilated renal pelvis containing pus
c. Red-white radial streaks in medulla
d. Destruction/loss of inner medullary tissue
e. Abscesses in the medulla
in chronic cases of pyelonephritis this occurs...
fibrosis (scar) which extends from the renal pelvis to the capsule, deformed renal pelvis
cause of Feline Vaccine Associated Sarcomas
rabies & Felv vaccines w/ aluminum adjuvants (killed vaccines)
pathophys of Feline Vaccine Associated Sarcomas
Aluminum creates intense inflammatory response needed for immune stimulation, post vaccination tumors arise b/c of proliferation of fibroblasts and myofirbroblasts at sites of chronic inflammation induced by the vaccine’s adjuvants &/or antigens. Combination of inflammatory cells, altered growth factors, oncogenes and antigenic stimulation causes tumors
Feline Vaccine Associated Sarcomas usually occur how long after vax?
usually within a year
to prevent give the rabies and felv vax here....
--Give rabies in low right thigh
--Give Felv in low left thigh
5 tumor types assoc with Feline Vaccine Associated Sarcomas
1. Fibrosarcomas
2. Malignant fibrous histiocytomas
3. Rhabdomyosarcomas
4. Osteosarcomas
5. Chrondrosarcomas
Feline Vaccine Associated Sarcomas: what happens when you remove it?
it usually will reoccur despite clean margins
chemotherapy used with Feline Vaccine Associated Sarcomas
Third most common neoplastic site in cats (17%)
Feline Mammary cancer
is Feline Mammary cancer usually malignant or benign?
Even if histopath says benign, is usually malignant
usually see this along with mammary tumors in cats
concurrent uterine or ovarian dz
tx for mammary tumors
Surgical Excision
Doxo/cyclo or mitroxantrone for mets
lifecycle for Toxoplasma gondii
· Cat eats cyst, trophozoite or oocyst and bcomes infected to shed for 10-14 days.
· Oocyst takes 1-4 days to become infective. Then is ingested and infects the gut cells.
usually toxo is....

subclinical or producing sickness?
Usually subclnical !!!
toxoplasma causes abortion in this species?
ways humans can get toxo
Poorly cooked meat
Contamination of food/ water
Cat contact
Cat Lungworm
Aerostrongylus abstrusus
Lifecycle of Aerostrongylus
Eggs form nodules in alveolar ducts: larva hatch: coughed up: Swallowed and passed in feces
Diagnostic Feature of Aerostrongylus
Dorsally Spined Tails on larva seen in feces
Tx for Aerostrongylus
(also Fenbendazole and Ivermectin)
Essential Amino Acid for Cats
Arginine needed for what?
To drive the urea cycle (it transforms ammonia to urea)
Arginine deficiency causes?
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Type of Atopy (type one hypersensitivity) in cats
Miliary Dermatitis
Tx of Babesia in cats that aren't responding to imidocarb or berenil
Primaquine Phosphate
Cat Scratch Fever: Etiology
Bartonella henselea
Humans present with this if they get Cat Scratch Fever
Ocular Reaction
Dx for Cat Scratch Fever
Blood Culture
Antibody Titer (indicates exposure)
Tx of Bartonella henislae
Three Blood Types in a Cat
Severe Transfusion Reactions if....
Type B cats get Type A blood
Why does a rxn occur in type B cats recieving type A blood?
Type B's carry alloantibodies to Type A
Cats with Type B blood are usually....
Purebreds (ex. Siamese and Abyssinians)
MC intestinal tumor in cats
MC small intestinal tumor in cats
Bowel Adenocarcinoma affects this part of the GI tract
Jejunum and ileum
Tx of Bowel Adenocarcinoma?
--Must get margins of at least 4 cm
Bleeding disorder and oculocutaneous albinism in blue smoke persians
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome
Common Hepatic Dz of Cats
Tx of Supperative Cholangitis/Cholangioheatitis
Amoxi or Baytril
Cells seen with Supperative Cholangitis/Cholangioheatitis
Cell type seen with Non-supperative cholangitis/cholangiohepatitis
Lymphs and Plasma Cells
Tx of Non-suppurative Cholangitis/Cholangiohepatitis
Prednisone because it is immune mediated
Etiology of Chronic Sinusitis in cats
Feline Rhinotracheitis
Feline Calicivirus
Accumulation of Chyle in the Pleural Cavity
Chyle is charactorized by...
high triglycerides
low cholesterol
Cytauxzoon felis transmitted by...
Dermacentor variablilis
Cytauxzoon multiplies in the...
Cytauxzoon multiplies in the macrophages which is different than Theileria which multiplies where??
the lymphocytes
Clin Path with Cytaxzoon?
Normocytic, Normochromic Anemia
Demodex in cats
Demodex gatoi
Don't use this to treat Demodex in cats because it will kill them...
Tx for Demodex in cats
Lyme Sulfur Dips
Ringworm seen in cats
Microsporum canis
Tx of Ringworm in cats
Lime Sulfur
Don't use this to treat Ringworm in cats with FIV because it causes bone marrow aplasia
Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis with...
Regular Insulin
Causes of type II diabetes in cats...
1. Cushings
2. Acromegaly
3. Obesity
4. Excess Epi, Glucagon
5. Excess or Deficient Thyroid Hormone
Complications of Diabetes Mellitus with Cats
Peripheral Neuropathy
Oral hypoglycemic used in non-insulin dependant diabetes
Insulin of Choice in Cats
Ultra Lente: Glargine
Tx of Dystocia in cats
Ear Mites in cats
Otodectes cyanotis
Zooinotic ear mite that affects the palm and back of the hand especially in young kids
Notoedres cati
Zooinotic ear mite that affects the elderly: affects long haired cats
Felicolasubro stratus
Endocarditis occurs where in cats?
Left AV (mitral)
Bilat. symmetrical hair loss on the posterior abdomen, inner thighs, and perineum of male neutered cats
Feline Endocrine Alopecia
Self limiting diarrhea of cats
Feline Enteric Coronavirus
Etiology of FIV
MC transmission of FIV
bite wounds
FIV test: ELISA (antibody or antigen test)
Antibody Test
FeLeuk test: ELISA (antibody or antigen test)
Heartworm test: ELISA (antibody or antigen test)
Lymes and Erlichia test: ELISA (antibody or antigen test)
False Positive with FIV occurs...
Kittens born to infected mothers
False Negative with FIV occurs...
it takes 8-12 wks to get circulating antibodies so positive cats will look negative during this time
Are kittens infected with FIV in utero?
It is very rare
Why is FIV not transmitted via casual contact? (i.e. licking, shared bowls)
The virus is destroyed rapidly by enzymes in the mouth, like HIV in humans
All positive FIV results should be confirmed with...
Western Blot
Maternal antibodies may cause a false positive FIV test in kittens, so....
Retest at 6 months of age when maternal antibodies wane
Asymptomatic period in FIV positive cats can last...
4-8 years!!!
Do FIV positive cats need to be separated from their housemates?
No, housemates rarely bite each other. Keep them inside away from neighboring cats.
Etiology of FIP
mutated Coronavirus
MC route of infection in FIP
Fecal Oral
Two types of FIP
Clin Path with FIP
Description of Fluid (Ascites) with FIP
Pyogranulomatous Nonseptic exudate with moderate cellularity and high protein levels
Do not use this test to dx FIP
FIP Serology becasue it will cross react with enteric coronavirus antibodies
Smears with FIP have this charactoristic background
Eosinophilic Stippled Appearance
Mycobacterium lepraemurium causes this
Feline Leprosy
most important factor in fighting feline corona virus
Cell Mediated Immunity
if a cat in contact with FIP has a humoral immunity with a strong cell mediated immunity then...
the cat will fight off FIP
Humoral immunity with no cell mediated immunity causes this with FIP...
Wet FIP (effusive)
Humoral immunity with partial cell mediated immunity
Tx for FIP
Pred with Cyclophosphamide or Chlorambucil
prognosis with FIP if cat is showing CS?
Poor (99% mortality)
type of vaccine with FIP
Similar to canine parvovirus
Feline Panleukopenia
Etiology of Feline Panleukopenia
congenital abnormality asoc. with Feline Panleukopenia
Cerebellar hypoplasia
Etiology of Feline Upper Respiratory Dz Complex
MC: Feline Viral Rhinotrachitis (herpes) and Calici
Less Important: chlamydia and mycoplasma
Tx of Chlamydia causing conjunctivitis
Causes extracellular coccoid bodies on the conjunctival epithelial cells
Four things that can cause stomatitis in cats...
1. FIV
2. FeLV
3. Herpes
4. Calici
Etiology of FeLV
MC route of transmission of FeLV
Contact with body fluids
Can cats be infected with FeLV in utero?
Yes, it crosses the placenta
Initial CS with FeLV
Lymphadenopathy and low grade fever (immune attack)
This percent of cats infected with FeLV fully recover and don't become carriers?
FeLV is a virus that can cause cancer of these cells
Can cause cancer of the lymphoid cells and bone marrow stem cells
Specific neoplasias with FeLV
Thymic, Multicentric, and Hepatosplenic Lymphosarcoma
Can cats be infected with FeLV in utero?
Yes, it crosses the placenta
Initial CS with FeLV
Lymphadenopathy and low grade fever (immune attack)
This percent of cats infected with FeLV fully recover and don't become carriers?
FeLV is a virus that can cause cancer of these cells
Can cause cancer of the lymphoid cells and bone marrow stem cells
Specific neoplasias with FeLV
Thymic, Multicentric, and Hepatosplenic Lymphosarcoma
Dx of FeLV: use antibodies against this core protein
Highly malignant tumor developing at vax sites: originate from fiberous CT: poor prognosis
Cat with nasal discharge: swelling or draining fistula over facial bone
Tx for Cryptococcosis
Amphoteracin B
Extracellular deposit of glycoproteins
Stain for Amyloids
Congo Red Stain
Amyloids is deposited here in cats
renal medulla
amyloid is deposited here in dogs
Cats with amyloidosis assoc with these clin presentations...
chronic renal failure with no proteinuria (b/c affects medullary portion)
How do dogs present differently than cats with amyloidosis and why?
they have protienuria because amyloid is deposited in glomeruli
Amyloidosis is familial in this breed of cats
Cats usually present with this CS with heartworms
Causes Heinz body anemia
Zinc toxicity
Methylene Blue
what does propofol cause if used daily in cats
heinz body anemia
Mild Oxidants cause this...
Tx for acetominophen toxicity
Acetylcystein (Mucomyst)
Infectious anemia that occurs in immunosuppressed cats and splenectomized dogs
What does hemobart look like on a blood smear
small round dots on the top of RBC's
How is hemobart transmitted (4 ways)
From queen
type of hemolysis with hemobart
extravascular hemolysis
Obese cat that stops eating: fat stores are mobilized which overwelms hepatocytes
Hepatic Lipidosis
MC endocrine disorder in cats
Tx for hyperthyroidism
Radioactive Iodine
Vitamin in excess that is MC in cats: extensive ankylosing reactive tissue especially in lower cervical vertebra
Hypervitaminosis A
Benign Hyperpigmented macules in orange cats
Lentigo Simplex
Linear foreign bodies are found where in cats
under the tongue
in the pylorus
What will rads show with a linear foreign body?
Plicated (accordian like) intestions
what contrast should be used if linear foriegn body is suspected?
iodine rather than barium
Lungworms in cat
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
Capillaria aerophilia
Severe inflammation of the oral cavity assoc with a heavy infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes
Lymphocytic Plasmocytic Stomatitis
Most cats with FeLV have these types of lymphosarcoma
Spinal Forms
Cause of megacolon in cat
Parasite that causes vomiting in the cat: larva found in vomit
Ollulanus tricuspis
Tx for Ollulanus tricuspis
Baby food has this in it so it can cause this...
it has onion powder so it can cause heinz body anemia
Baytril causes this problem in cats
Idiosyncratic Blindness
Etiology of ear mites
Otodectes cyonotis
Tx of Ear Mites
This can occur in cats that eat dog food
DCM: taurine deficiency
Can be used to Tx cat spraying
Also diazepam, megestrol acetate, busprione
Blue eyed abino cat assoc with deafness
Waardenburg-Klien Syndrome
coughing, wheezing cat with open mouth breathing
feline asthma
lobe of lung that can collapse with feline asthma
right middle lung lobe
emergency drugs to treat feline asthma
(also dex and pred)
long term tx of feline asthma
corticosteroids (Pred) bronchodialators:
inhaled bronchodialator
inhaled corticosteroid
Flovent (Fluticasone proprionate)
older, outdoor cat with a hx of fighting that is thin and has stinky breath
used to confirm positive FIV ELISA tests
Western Blot
used to stimulate appetite in an FIV cat
don't use this in FIV cats because of severe neutropenia
use this test if you get a Positive FeLeuk test with ELISA: it is the most reliable
difference between ELISA and IFA to dx FeLeuk
ELISA detects anitgemia, NOT viremia
IFA detects viremia
don't give this vax in cat with FeLeuk
ataxic young cat with the 3 D's (diarrhea, depression, and dehydration)
feline panleukopenia
clin path with panleuk?
profound leukopenia
50-3000 WBC
in utero infections of panleuk attacks
Attacks cerebellum & retina of kittens
panleuk may cause this in pregnant queens
dx of panleukopenia
Fecal test for FPV antigen
tx of panleuk
Antibiotics (not renal toxic ones)
Parenteral nutrition
rads can pick up stones this big...
greater than 3mm
drug that Minimizes urge incontinence in FUS
drug that Minimizes reflex dyssynergia & functional urethral
how does radioactive iodine tx hyperthyroidism?
selectively irradicates/destroys hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue
chemotherapy used with lymphoma
3 things that can cause hemolytic anemia in a cat
1. Hemobartonella
2. Cytatoxozoon
3. Erlichia
new name for Hemobartonella
Mycoplasma hemophilus
FeLV ELISA tests for this viral antigen
(IFA also tests for this)
most definative dx for FeLeuk
etiology of FeLeuk
etiology of FIV
FIV replicates in these cells
Western Blot is used to dx FIV by testing for this (antibody or antigen)
how effective is the FIV vaccine?
only 67%
what does a vaccinated FIV cat show up on a FIV ELISA test?
it will show up positive
what type of vax if FIV?
Antiviral Therapy(MC one)
will antiviral therapy get rid of the virus (feleuk or FIV)
no, it will cause less severe symptoms
if a cat has high globulin what 3 things diseases could it mean the cat has?
1. FIP
2. HW disease
3. Toxoplasma
used to dx Toxoplasma gondi
IgM and IgG antibody test
Sp Gravity?
Sp Grav: under 1.018
Protein: under 2.5
Cells: under 1000-2500
Modified Transudate
Sp Gravity?
Modified Transudate
Sp Gravity: 1.018-1.025
Protein: 2.5-6.0
Cells: under 7000
Sp Gravity?
Modified Transudate
Sp Gravity: over 1.025
Protein: over 2.5
Cells: over 7000
Rivalta test
new test used to dx FIP
prob with serological test to dx FIP
it can't tell the difference between enteric corona virus and FIP
gold standard to dx FIP
response that Intranasal FIP vaccine triggers
IgA immune response