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37 Cards in this Set

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Metaphor
a comparision-using "is" or an implied equal sign (=) -- between two things of unlike nature that yet have something in common
"the Napo River... is a bowl of sweet air, a basin of greenness and of grace..."

"On the final examination, several students went down in flames"
Simile
a comparison-using "like" or "as" -- between two tings of unlike nature that yet have something in common
"He had a posture like a question mark"

"Silence settled over the audience like a block of granite"

And ice, mast-high, came floating by, as green as emerald.
Symbol
a substitution of one thing for another
no example
Synecdoche
a substitution - using a part for the whole
all hands on deck

bless the fur-faces
Metonymy
a substitution - using a symbol or attribute of the thing described, but not using an actual part, limb, etc.
the grown for royalty

brass for military officers

the suits for executives
Personification
investing inanimate objects (or abstract concepts) with animate abilities or qualities of animals, humans, etc.
the leaves trembled with joy

the dew-covered grass wined back at him.

peace wept at war.

the yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes, licked its tongue into the corners of the evening
Onomatopoeia
use of words whose sound echos the sense
...and murmuring of innumerable bees.

hiss screeeech, buzzz, hush, whisper, clang
Hyperbole
the use of exaggerated terms for the purpse of emphasis of heightened effect

(overstatement, over exageration)
i have told you a thousand times that costs an arm and a leg
Litotes
the deliberate use of understatement to enhance the impressiveness of what we say [often employs a negative]

(understatement)
he is not bad looking

"it isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain"
Irony
use of a word in such a way as to convey a meaning oposite to the literal meaning of the word

(do not confuse with coincidence)
i was overjoyed at having to take finals
Dramatic Irony
an outcome of events that is the opposite of what was expected (often teaching a necessary lesson to the protagonist)
shakesperes king lear or othello
Oxymoron
a contradiction in terms (usually two)
why then, o brawling love! o loving hate! o anything of nothing first create!

parting is such sweet sorrow

tough love, jumbo shrimp, military intelligence, postal service, love-hate relationship, golf-highlights
Paradox
an apparently contradictory statement that nevertheless contains a measure of truth
"art is a form of lying in order to tell the truth"

The beginning is in the end. You must give to receive. The more you know, the more you know you don't know.
Rhetorical Question
asking a question, not to elicit an answer, but to assert or deny something indirectly.
you think i like this job?

whatever possessed you?
Puns
a play on words, often involving double meaning
"If we don't hang together, we will hang separately"

"she hopes to obtain a divorce and alter her situation"
Syllepsis
using a word understood different in relation to two or more other words, which it modifies or governs

(one literal and one figurative)
she opened the door and her heart to the runaway
Zeugma
a type of Syllepsis, in which the usage is grammatically or idiomatically incorrect
He maintained a flourishing business and racehorse.
figures of speech (figurative language)
language that creates imaginative connections between our ideas and our senses or that reveals striking similarities between things we had never associated before
symbol
a symbol comares or puts together two things thate in some ways unlike
archetypes
a few symbolic character types, plots, objects, or settings - example: trickster, the quest, the garden- have become so pervasive and have recurred in so many cultures that they are considered archetypes.
allegory
an extended symbol that encompasses a whole work.
myth
when an entire story is allegorical or symbolic it is sometimes called a myth

myth originally meant a story of communal origin that provided an explanation or religious interpretation of man, nature, the universe, or the relation between them
theme
the sentral idea, its thesis, its message
allusion
references to history, religion, cultural practices, and so on.
character
someone who acts, appears, or is referred to as playing a part in a literary work, usually fiction or drama
characterization
the art and technique of representing fictional personages-depends upon action or plot as well as narration and point of view
hero/heroine/villain
hero "good guy"
heroine "good girl"
villian "bad guy"

hero is often larger than life, stronger or better than most human beings, sometimes almost Godlike
antihero
in most modern fictions, the leading character is much more ordinary and more like the rest of us
protagonist
the person being opposed, by the antagonist
antagonist
someone who offers opposition
major or main character
those characters we see over a longer period of time. more complex, we see them as more realistic characters
minor characters
the figures who fill the story, they can grow and change also, they sometimes even contradict our expectations
foils
someone who serves to contrast to call attention to another thing's good qualities
round characters
characters that change, develop, or act from conflicting motives
flat characters
simple characters that behave in unchanging or unsurprising ways.
stereotypes
characters based on conscious or unconscious cultural assumptions about what a person's sex, age, ethnicity, nationality, occupation, marital status, and so on will tell us about that person's traits, actions, even values.
setting (context)
a time and place and context of the location, historical time period, what's surrounding the story.