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79 Cards in this Set

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Allegory
A narrative in which the characters, the behaviors, and even the setting demonstrate multiple levels of meaning and significance. Often a universal symbol or personified abstraction-Cupid.
Alliteration
The sequential repetition of a similar initial sound, usually applied to consonants, usually in closely proximate stressed syllables. "She sells sea shells by the sea shore."
Allusion
A literary, historical, or mythological reference. For example, one might contrast the life and tribulations of Frederick Douglass to the trials of Job.
Anaphora
The regular repetition of the same words or phrases at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses. Ex: "To raise a happy, healthful, and hopeful child. it takes a family, it takes teachers, it takes clergy, it takes business people, it takes community leaders, it takes all of us."
Antithesis
The juxtaposition of sharply contrasting ideas in balanced or parallel words, phrases, grammatical structure, or ideas. Ex: "To err is human, to forgive divine"
Aphorism
A concise statement designed to make a point or illustrate a commonly held belief. Ex: "Spare the rod and spoil the child."
Apostrophe
An address or invocation to something inanimate. Ex: "I would pour out my soul's complaint, in my rude way, with an apostrophe to the moving multitude of ships.
Appeals to...authority, emotion, or logic
Rhetorical arguments in which the speaker claims to be an authority or expert in a field, or attempts to play upon the emotions, or appeals to the use of reason. "Ethos"-authority, "Pathos"-emotion, "Logos"-Logic.
Assonance
The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds, usually in successive or proximate words. Ex: "She sElls sea shElls by the sEa shore."
Asyndeton
A syntactical structure in which conjunctions are omitted in a series, usually producing mroe rapid prose. Ex: "Veni, vidi, vici"
Attitude
The sense expressed by the tone of voice or the mood of a piece of writing; the author's feelings toward his or her subject, characters, events, or theme. It might even be his or her feelings for the reader. IMPORTANT FOR AP EXAM!
Begging the question
An argumentative ploy where the arguer sidesteps the question or the conflict, evades or ignores the real question.
Cannon
That which has been accepted as authentic, such as in cannon law, or the "Cannon according to the theories of Einstein."
Chiasmus
A figure of speech and generally a syntactical structure wherein the order of the terms in the first half of a paralel clause is reversed in the second. Ex: "He thinks I am bus a fool. A fool, perhaps I am.
Claim
In argumentation, an assertion of something as fact.
Colloquial
A term identifying the diction of the common, ordinary folks, especially in a specific region or area. For instance, most people expect Southerners to use the colloquial expression, "Y'all".
Comparison and Contrast
A mode of discourse in which two or more things are compared, contrasted, or both. Ex: Compare and contrase two marriage proposals taken from literature and analyze for the use the nattators made of rhetorical devices and for their argumentative success.
Connotation, Denotation
The implied, suggested, or underlying meaning of a word or phrase.
The dictionary definition of a word.
Conceit
A comparison of two unlikely things that is drawn out within a piece of literature, in particular an extended metaphor within a poem. However, conceits can also be used in non-fiction and prose. Ex: compare preparations of surgery with conducting a religious ritual.
Consonance
The repetition of two or more consonants with a change in the intervening vowels. Ex: pitter-patter, splish-splash.
Convention
An accepted matter, model, or tradition. Ex: Aristotle's conventions of tragedy.
Critique
An assessment or analysis of something, such as a passage of writing, for the purpose of determining what it is, what its limitations are, and how it conforms to the standard of the genre.
Deductive reasoning (deduction)
The method of argument in which specific statements and conclusions are drawn from general principals: movement from general to specific, in contrast to induction.
Dialect
The language and speech idiosyncracies of a specific area, region, or group. Ex: Minnesotans say, "you betcha" when they agree with you. Sometimes found as speech from a different era or culture.
Diction
The specific word choice an author uses to persuade or convey tone, purpose, or effect. YOU MUST KNOW: how to relate a writer's diction, combined with syntax, figurative language, literary devices, etc. and how they come together to become the author's style.
Didactic
Writing or speech is didactic when it has an instructive purpose or a lesson. Often associated with a dry, pompous presentation, regardless of its innate value to the reader/listener.
Elegy
A poem or prose work that laments, or meditates upon the death of a person or persons. Sometimes end with words of consolation. 9/11
Epistrophe
In rhetoric, the repition of a phrase at the end of successive sentences. Ex: If women are healthy and educated, their families will flourish. If women are free from violence, their families will flourish. If women have a chance to work...their families will flourish."
Epitaph
Writing in praise of a dead person, most often inscribed upon a headstone.
Ethos
In rhetoric, the appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator. (Who is this person saying what, and what makes him able to say so?)
Euphemism
An indirect, kinder, or less harsh or hurtful way of expressing unpleasant information. Ex: Someone has "Passed away" rather than "died".
Exposition
The interpretation or analysis of a text.
Eulogy
A speech or written passage in praise of a person, an oration in honor of a dead person. Elegy laments, Eulogy praises. also spoken on 9/11.
Extended metaphor
A series of comparisons within a piece of writing. If they are consistently one concept, this is also known as conceit.
Figurative language, Figure of speech.
Figurative (in contrast to ltieral) language has levels of meaning expressed through figures of speech such as PERSONIFICATION, METAPHOR, HYPERBOLE, IRONY, OXYMORON, LITOTE, and others.
Flashback(retrospection)
an earlier event is inserted into the normal chronology of the narration
Genre
A type or class of literature, such as EPIC, NARRATIVE, POETRY, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY
Homily
A sermon, but more contemporary uses include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual life.
Hyperbole
Overstatement characterized by exaggerated language, usually to make a point or draw attention. In a state of exhaustion,"Im really beat."
Imagery
Broadly defined, any sensory detail or evocation in a work. More narrowly, the use of figurative language to evoke a feeling, to call to mind an idea, or to describe an object. Involves any or all of the five senses. A writer uses imagery in conjunction with other figures of speech, such as simile and metaphor. "Her cheeks were rosy and so was my love."
Inductive reasoning (Induction)
The method of reasoning or argument in which general statements and conclusions are drawn from specific principals: movement from specific to general. A general supposition is made after investigating specific instances.
Inference
A conclusion or proposition arrived at by considering facts, observations, or some other specific data. Look at clues, learn the facts.
Irony
A contrase between what is stated and what is really meant. Intended meaning is often the opposite of what is stated, suggesting light sarcasm. Often used to create poignancy or humor.
Verbal Irony
What the author/narrator says is acutally the opposite of what is meant
Situational Irony
When events end up the opposite of what is expected
Dramatic Irony
In drama and fiction, facts or situations are known to the reader or audience, but not to the cahracters.
Isocolon
Parallel structure in which the parallel elements are similar not only in grammatical structure, but also in length. Ex: "Many are called, but few are chosen."
Jargon
Specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group. Ex: Computer industry-geek, crash, interface, down, delete, virus, bug.
Juxtaposition
The location of one thing adjacent to or juxtaposed with another to create an effect, reveal an attitude, or accomplish some other purpose.
Litote
A figure of speech that emphasizes its subject by conscious understatement. Ex: "not bad" as a comment about something especially good.
Loose sentence
A long sentence that starts with its main clause, which is followed by several dependent clauses and modifying phrases. Ex: "The child ran, frenzied and ignoring all hazards, as if being chased by demons."
Metaphor
One thing pictured as if it were something else, suggesting a likeness or analogy. Metaphor is an implicit comparison or identification of one thing with another, without the use of verbal signal such as LIKE or AS. Ex: "It is the east and Juliet is the sun."
Metonymy
A figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. Ex: "Buckingham palace announced today..."
Mode of discourse
The way in which information is presented in written or spoken form. Greeks believed there were only 4 modes of discourse: NARRATION, DESCRIPTION, EXPOSITION (cause/effect, process "analysis", comparison/contrast), and ARGUMENTATION. We now incluse personal observation and narrative reflection.
Mood
A feling or ambience resulting from the tone of a piece as well as the writer/narrator's attitude and point of view. It is a "feeling" that establishes the atmosphere in a work of literature or other discouse.
Narrative
A mode of discourse that tells a story of some sory and it is based on sequences of connected events, usually presented in a a straightforward, chronological framework.
Onomatopoeia
A word capturing or approximating the sound of what it describes. "buzz" Make the passage more effective for the reader/listener.
Oxymoron
A figure of speech that combines two apparently contadictory elements as in "wise fool", " baggy tights", or "deafening silence".
Paradox
A statement that seems contradictory but may probably be true. Ex: "Fight for peace."
Parallel structure
The use of similar forms in writing for nouns, verbs, phrases, or thoughts. Ex: "Jane enjoys readING, writING, and skING."In prose, parallel, recurrent syntactical similarity where several parts of the sentence or several sentences are expressed alike to show that their ideas are equal in importance. Ex: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, is was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness..."
Pathos
The element in literature that stimulates pity or sorrow. In argument or persuasion, it tends to be the evocation of pity from the reader/listener. Poor starving children approach.
Periodic Sentence
A long sentence in which the main clause is not completed until the end. Ex: "Looking as if she were being chased by demons, ignoring all hazards, the child ran."
Pesonification
Treating an abstraction or nonhuman object as if it were a person by endowning it with human features or qualities. Ex: Stars are "Tossing their heads in sprightly dance."
Point of view
The relation in which a narrator/author stands to a subject of discourse Point of view n nonfiction requires the reader to establish the historical perspective of what is being said.
Prose
The ordinary form of written language without metrical structure in contrast to verse and poetry
Realism
Attempting to describe nature and life without idealization and with attention to detail. Mark Twain=master of realism! Thoreau=romantic outlook/not
Rebuttal/refutation
An argument technique wherein opposing arguments are anticipated and countered
Rhetoric
The art of using words to persuade in writing or in speaking. All types of writing may seek to persuade and rhetoricians study these genres for their persuasive qualities.
Sarcasm
A form of verbal irony in which apparent praise is actually critical. Sarcasm can be light, and gently poke fun at something, or it can be harsh, caustic, and mean.
Satire
A literary work that holds up human failings to ridicule and censure. Jonathan Swift=master! Ex: Death of a Salesman= a satire attacking the stuggle for corporate survival by the little man.
Simile
A direct, explicit comparison of one thing to another, usually using the words "like" or "as" to draw the connection. Ex: "You eyes are LIKE two great oceans."
Style
The manner in which a writer combines and arranges words, shapes ideas, and utilizes syntax and structure. It is the distinctive manner of expression that represents that author's typical writing style. OFTEN ASKED ABOUT ON EXAM! In particular, pay attn. to style when comparing two passages on the same topic.
Symbolism
Use of a person, place, thing, event, or pattern that figuratively represents or "stands for" something else. Often, the thing or idea represented is more abstract or general than the symbol, which is concrete.
Synechdote
A figure of speech in which a part signifies the whole. Ex: "Fifty masts" represents fifty ships.
Syntax
The way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is sentence structure and how it influences the way the reader perceives a particular piece of writing. IMPORTANT in establishing the TONE of a piece and the ATTITUDE of the author/narrator.
Theme
The central or dominant idea or focus of the work. The statement a passage makes about its subject.
Tone
The attitude the author/narrator takes toward a subject and theme; the tenor of a piece of writing based on particular sylistic devices employed by the writer. Tone reflects attitude.
Voice
The acknowledged or unacknowledged source of words of the story; the speaker's or narrator's particular "take" on an idea based on a particular passage and how all the elements of style of the piece come together to express his/her feelings.
Zeugma
A grammatically correct construction in which a word, usually a verb or adjective, is applied to two or more nouns without being repeated. Often used to comic effect. Ex: "The theif took my waller and the Fifth ave. bus."