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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
subject/predicate
[S] [P]
She heard a cough
direct object
thing or person that receives the action

Alex plays the PIANO
transitive/intransitive verb
T: (may have direct objects)
My uncle drives a Porsche

I: The book is lying on the table
S-V-O pattern
[S] [V] [O]
A chicken laid an egg
predicate noun/adjective (subjective complements)
(operates with the verb "to be")

Kim is an ACCOUNTANT
The sky is BLUE
predicate nominative
(is -- equal to)

Kim is an ACCOUNTANT
Greg is an excellent STUDENT
copulative
to be -- copulative verb/equative verb/linking verb
adverbials
[-ly] words. (quickly, nicely, etc.)
intensifiers
very, totally, extremely
sentence adverbial
modify the whole sentence, generally at the beginning

ex. hopefully, unfortunately
adverbial complement
tells where, when, how (usually at the end of a sentence)

I saw John swimming IN THE OCEAN
infinitive
to V (to sing, to play)
weak/strong/suppletive verbs
weak: add [-ed]
strong: sing/sang/sung
suppletive: be/was/been
historical present tense
using present tense to tell about something in the past

ex. "so he comes around the corner, and I say"
modals
subclass of helping verbs

ex. can, could, shall, should, will, would, must

(can't add [s])
progressive verbs
(In the process of)
always have to have "to be" and present participle

I AM RUNNING
WAS RUNNING
WILL BE RUNNING
present/past participle
present: add [-ing]

past: add [-ed]
perfect tenses
present perfect: "have" and past participle

ex. i HAVE PLAYED soccer

past perfect

ex. i HAD PLAYED soccer
past perfect:
"fronted"
(wh-) words that ask questions

ex. WHAT are you doing?
expletive
unnecessary words often at the beginning of a sentence

ex. There are students in this room
passive/active (voice)
passive: Huckleberry Finn was written by mark Twain
(uses form of "to be" + past participle)

Active voice: Mark Twain wrote Huckleberry Finn
(often uses action verb)
appositive
(a renaming or restating)

ex. Sue, my aunt, is a great singer
objective complement
additional invormation following the noun

ex. I saw a duck SWIMMING IN THE LAKE
definate/indefinate article
definate: the

indefinate: a/an
demonstratives
(used to point things out)

"this" and "that"
posessives (inflected/periphrastic)
inflected: (adding ['s])
periphrastic: That hat of the women
(as opposed to "That woman's hat")
coordinate adjectives
(designates a subset of a group)

ex. RED car, SMALL house
compounds
green + house = (greenhouse)
relative clause
begins a new clause (which, that ,who,whom)

ex. Did you see the man WHO robbed the store
relative pronoun
THAT or WHICH
participal phrase
phrases with [-ing]
restrictive/nonrestrictive modifier
restrictive: that

nonrestrictive: which
conjunction
coordinate: and,but,or (join like phrases)

subordinate: although,... (reasons or excuses)
gerund phrase
[-ing] form used as a noun in a phrase

ex. SINGING IN THE SHOWER is fun
absolute phrase
Just needs 1 subject and 1 verb

ex. I went to the store
dangling modifier
I lost my dog, But then one day my dad found him driving to work
simple/compound/complex sentence
simple: I went to the store

I went to the store AND bought a fish (compund)(with a coordinate conjunction)

I went to the store and bought a fish, although I didn't buy anything (complex) (with a subordiate conjunction)
coorelatives
ex. not only, but also, either
conjunctive adverb
ex. hopefully, unfortunately
faulty parallelism
ex. I like to sleep and eating.
antecedent
...whom I haven't seen in years.

antecedent: (who? [BOB])
intensive/reflexive modifier
(ends in self [himself, myself])
nominative/objective/posessive cases
nominative: subject(I,you,he,she,it)

objective:not subject (saw [me,you,us,him])

posessive (my, your, his, her, its, our)
embedment
The woman, WHOM YOU SAW YESTERDAY, was my aunt