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79 Cards in this Set

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The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or accented syllables.
Alliteration
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art.
Allusion
A pause or break in the middle of a line of poetry
Caesura
A person or an animal who takes part in the action of a literary work.
Character
An unusual or surprising comparison of two very different things. Ex. Huswifery
Conceit
The repetition of consonant sounds at the ends of words or accented syllables. Ex. Emily DIckinson
Consonance
A 2-line stanza
couplet
Form of a language spoken by people in a particular region or group. Ex. Mark Twain's "the Nororious Jumping Frog...."
Dialect
A form of meter. A foot with one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables.
Dactylic Foot
the use, in a literary work, of clues that suggest events that have yet to occur
foreshadowing
poetry that lacks a regular rhythmical pattern, or meter.
Free verse
a contrast between what is stated and what is meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.
Irony
A word or phrase that appeals to one or more of the 5 senses
image
a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as though it were something else
metaphor
the poem's rhythmical pattern
meter
atmosphere, the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. Influenced by setting, tone, and events.
mood
the use of words that imitate sounds
onomatopoeia
a way of writing that uses long, complicated sentences with elaborate figures of speech, paralles structures, uncommon allusions, and unfamiliar word choices.
used during 17th and 18th centuries by writers
ornate style
a figure of speech in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics
personification
type of writing in which uncomplicated sentences and ordinary words are used to make simple, direct statement.
Favored by puritans.
plain style
the perspective, or vantage point, from which the story is told
point of view
point of view where the narrator knows and tells about what each character feels and thinks.
Ex. "The Devil and Tom Walker"
Omniscient
Point of view where the narrator relates the inner thoughts and feelings of only one character, and everything is viewed from this character's perspective.
Limited
plain style
puritanism
the presentation in art of the details of actualy life.
A literary movement that began durin ghte 19th century and stressed the actual as opposed to the imagined or the fanciful. Tried to write truthfully and objectively about ordinary characters in ordinary situations
realism
a speaker or character who tells a story
narrator
the repetition of sounds at the ends of words
rhyme
a figure of speech that makes a direct comparison between two subjects using either like or as
simile
anything that stands for or represents something else
symbol
a central message or insight into life revealed by a literary work
theme
the writer's attitude toward his or her subject, characters, or audience
tone
an American literary and philosophical movment of the 19th centry. Believed that intuition and the individual conscience "transcended" experience and thus are better guides to truth than are the senses and logical reason
Respected the individual spirit and the natural world, believing that divinity was present everywhere, in nature and in each person.
Included emerson, Thoreau, Fuller.
Transcendentalism
Name the Authors and works of Puritanism.
William Bradford - "Of Plymouth Plantation"
Anne Bradstreet - "To My Dear and Loving Husband"
Edward Taylor - "Huswifery"
Jonathan Edwards - "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
name some facts about William Bradford
wrote "Of Plymouth Plantation"
led the puritans to north america on the mayflower and settled in plymouth, mass.
drew up the first agreement for self-government in the new world - "Mayflower compact" which served as a model for other settlements.
Elected governor 30 times.
name some facts about "Of Plymouth Plantation"
Theme: Faith overcoming adversity. The value of friendship.
Contains Allusions and Imagery.
Viewpoint: Direct, simple, Puritan plain style
Main Idea: An account of the Pilgrim's voyage to the New World and the founding of Plymouth Plantation. shows history of struggle and underscored their religious beliefs. Viewed the Puritan settlers as a new chosen peole in a new promised land.
What are some facts about Anne Bradstreet?
Wrote "To my dear and loving husband"
First American woman writer to find a place for individual feelings within the context of puritanism.
"The Tenth Muse" = collection of her scholarly poems
Her later poetry expressed her personal feelings about her family with the difficulties of colonial life.
What are some facts on "to my dear and loving husband"?
Theme: marital love, everlasing love.
Lyric poem: the main feeling she expresses is the love for her husband.
she also expresses her religious faith and belief in afterlife.
The repetition adds emphasis to the couple's unity
theimages are easy to comprehend because they are concrete
Rhyme scheme: couplet form
viewpoint: faith in God, love and devotion for her husband
What are some facts on Edward Taylor?
Wrote "Huswifery"
considered his poetry private records of his religious experience and did not want them published.
poetry was not written in the PLAIN STYLE of the PUritans.
What are some facts on "Huswifery"?
Theme: religious fervor; physical and spiritual beauty.
Style: Ornate style (not puritan). It is complicated and elaborate, with metaphors and decorative language. This poem appealed to Puritans because of its religious idea.
What are some facts on Jonathan Edwards?
Remembered as one of the most powerful and persuasive Puritan preachers of colonial new England.
Became one of the leaders of the Great Awakening.
Became president of the college of New Jersey (Now Princeton University).
What are some facts on "sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"?
written by Jonathan Edwards.
Theme: salvation, divine wrath, human frailty.
Name the authors and their works of the Enlightenment.
Benjamin Franklin - "The Autobiography", "Poor Richard's Almanack"
Phillis Wheatley - "To His Excellency, General Washington"
Abigail Adams - "Letter to her Daughter from the New White HOuse"
Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crévecoeur - "Letter from an American Farmer"
Name some facts on Benjamin Franklin.
Famous publisher, civic leader, inventor, and diplomat.
Founded an extremely successful newspaper called the Pennsylvania Gazette, which later became the Saturday Evening Post.
Founded the first public library and the University of Pennsylvania.
Presided over the constitutional Convention of 1776.
Name some facts on "The Autobiography".
Written by Benjamin Franklin.
Theme: striving for self-improvement; political and personal liberty.
Style: Uses direct and literal language to emphasize the seriousness of his desire for self-improvement.
Enlightenment idea: Franklin's list of virtue's and precepts reflect the emphasis on order that was characteristic of the Age of REason
List some facts on "Poor Richard's Almanack"
Published by Franklin every year for 25 years.
Main Idea: This collection of wise sayings comments on human nature. The sayings support virtues such as moderation, industry, prudence, and frugality.
theme: self-improvement; independence.
Syle: witty, common sense, and brilliantly terse style.
Aphorisms: brief statments expressing wise observations or general truths. A variety of techniqques, such as rhymes or repeated words or sounds are used to make them easy to remember.
List some facts on PHillis Wheatley.
An African American woman.
She became known as a prodigy, and published her first poem at 16 tears of age.
She was sold as a black slave to the Wheatley's.
Name some facts on "to His excellency, General Washington".
Written by Phillis Wheatley.
Theme: Washington and the American army are godlike in their virtues and prove invincible.
Style: ornate - 18th century.
Rhyme: writeen in heroic couplets: each pair of lines are rhymed and written in iambic pentameter.
Uses: personification, symbols, and allusions
Name some facts on Abigail Adams.
Wife of John Adams, the second president of the united states, and the mother of John Quincy Adams, the sixth president.
Known as Pioneer of American Woman's movement.
Name some facts on "Letter to her Daughter from the New White House".
Written by Abigail Adams.
Theme: Adjustment to new surroundings.
Style: uses descriptive details. Description emphasizes the city's isolation and unfinished state.
Writer's Attitude: It is often necessary to make inferences based on an author's writing in order to determine the author's attitudes and feelings. Adams clearly communicates her attitude toward both Washinton and the new White House in her letter. She anticipates that in the future she will become more delighted with the city.
List some facts on Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crévecoeur
First writer to compare America to a melting pot.
Chronicled his experiences and observations as a European immigrant adjusting to life in America.
Letter from an American Farmer made him famous.
Name some facts on "Letter from an American Farmer."
Written by Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crévecoeur.
theme: progress and hope; diversity
Tone: enthusiastic, optimistic, and subjective.
Personification: Compares America to Alma Mater (fostering mother) in order to emphasize that America welcomes and nourishes immigrants.
Style: informal and intimate.
Enlightenment Idea: Belief in progress and hope. Stresses that Americans use their own power to shape destinies.
Name the authors and their works of Division, War, and Reconciliation period.
"Swing Low, Sweet Chariot"
"Go Down, Moses"
Chief Joseph's Speech - "I Will Fight No More Forever"
Frederick Douglass - "My Bondage and my Freedom"
Abraham Lincoln - "The Gettysburg Address"
Walt Whitman - "Song of Myself", "I Hear America Singing", "As Toilsome I Wandered Virginia's Woods", "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer", "Beat! Beat! Drums!", "This Dust Was Once the Man", "A Noiseless Patient Spider", "Souvenires of Democracy", "Now Lift Me Close"
Name some facts on "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot"
Home stood for heaven, where slaves would be free. The spiritual may refer to the Underground Railroad; "Jordan" is the Ohio River, separating slave and free states.
The chorus describes a chariot coming to take the singer home to heaven.
Name some facts on "Go Down, Moses"
Pharoah - slave owner
Egypt - South
Moses - Leader
Based on the Old Testament account of the Israelits' bondage in Egypt.
The chorus sings god's command: Tell Pharoah to let my people go.
To many slaves, "Go down Moses, meant that all slaves everywhere must be set free."
Name some facts on "I will Fight No More Forever"
by Chief Joseph.
Landmark speech in the Native American struggle for justice.
His speech as a resigned, mournful tone emphasized by his use of dead or death seven times.
Name some facts on "My Bondage My Freedom"
written by Frederick Douglass.
Themes: slavery as unnatural; growth and change; conflict and resolution.
Literary Techniques: sensory details; facts; examples; opinions.
Purpose: "to show the world that the black man, a slave, was a human being in the complete sens of being "human", in a time where those who said otherwise."
Name some facts on the Gettysburg Address.
Said by Abraham Lincoln
Address reminds us that our nation was founded on the priniciple of equality. The war tests whether a nation dedicated to that idea can endure.
Lincoln concludes that his words will soon be forgotten but that the soldiers' struggle will be remembered.
Because of the solemnity of the occasion, Lincoln uses formal diction.
Name some facts on Walt Whitman.
REcognized as one of the most gifted poets.
"Leaves of Grass" has become one of the most highly regarded collections of poetry ever written.
Uses unconventional subject matter and unusual forms.
Uses nonstandard rhyme theme and meter called "free verse"
name some facts on "Song of Myself"
By Walt Whitman
Themes: individualism; self-reliance; the power of nature
Main idea: Whitman's view of himself may best be described as an individual who is also an embodiment of all individuals.
Style: free verse
Repetition
name some facts on "I hear america singing"
Theme: every american is a unique individual.
Synopsis: the speaker hears Americans singing a variety of songs which are different and individual.
"As Toilsome I Wandered Virginia's Woods"
by Walt Whitman
Theme: We cannot forget those who died in the Civil War.
Symbol: Woods symbolize fallen soldiers.
Synopsis: As the speaker wanders in the woods, he comes across an unknown soldier's grave. In years to come the speaker remembers the scene.
"When I Heard the Learn'd Asronomer"
by Walt Whitman
Theme: Nature is understood not though science but through mystical personal experience.
Symbols: Astronomer represents science; stars represent nature.
Synopsis: The poet is resltless and finds inspiration only after he wanders out to contemplate the night sky.
"Beat! Beat! Drums!"
By Walt Whitman
Theme: War brutally interrupts and changes everyday life.
Rhythm and repetition emphasizes the poem's meaning, which is destructiveness of war.
Synopsis: In time of war, all normal courses of life are disrupted.
"This Dust Was Once the Man"
Theme: Lincoln was great because he preserved America as a nation.
The poem suggests that "the foulest crime in history known in any land or age" was the Civil War.
Synopsis: The poet commemorates the great President Abe Lincoln
"A Noiseless Patient Spider"
theme: the poet's soul attempt to reach others.
comparison: poet's soul is compared to a spider.
image: "gossamer thread" suggests the qualities of a soul's accomplishments - fragile and shining beauty.
Synopsis: The speaker sees a spider spinning its fine web out of itself and compares it to his soul, which he searches to connect.
"Souvenirs of Democracy"
by Walt Whitman
Theme: the poet leaves behind to all readers his songs of democracy.
Whitman's greatest legacy is "himself"
Synopsis: the businessman leaves money and other valuables in his well. but the poet has nothing to leave but hsi souvenirs of democracy and poetry.
"Now Lift Me Close"
by Walt Whitman
Theme: Through his poetry, the poet shares himself fully with each individual reader.
Central Metaphor: This book is a man.
Synopsis: The poet's verse is more than words on a page. It is the man himself. After his death, the book will communicate with the living reader.
Name the realist authors and their works.
Mark Twain (regionalist) - "Life on the Mississippi"
Bret Harte (Regionalist) - "the Outcast of Poker Flat"
Kate Chopin (regionalist)- "the Story of an Hour"
Willa Cather (regionalist) - "A wagner matinee"
Jack London (naturalist) - "To Build a Fire"
Stephen Crane (naturalist) - "the Open Boat"
Facts on mark Twain
Born as Samuel Longhorne Clemens
Journeyman, printer, riverboat pilot
"mark twain" was a river call which indicated two fathoms and meant the water was dep enough for safe passage.
Facts on "Life on the Mississippi"
Theme: Experiences are often quite different from the way we imagine them as inexperienced, romantic adolescents.
Opinion: Narrator described the Mississippi as majestic and magnificent.
by Mark Twain.
Facts on Bret Harte
Regionalist
Considered the first writer of the "local color" movement
Wrote mainly about western life and "old timers"
Facts on "The Outcasts of Poke Flat"
by Bret Harte
Theme: The best human qualities can sometimes be found among those we consider outcasts.
Setting: a short story set in the American frontier West
Dialect: the story element that best captures the "local color"
Facts on Kate Chopin
Regionalist
wrote about Louisiana lifestyle
Characters generally about Louisiana Creoles and Cajuns
Cared deeply about the rold of woman in society and the repression of women in Victorian America
Fact on Willa Cather
Regionalist
Absorbed in stories of the immigrant families who were her neighbors.
Writes mostly about most difficult subject: the celebration of the life of a good person.
Facts on "A Wagner Matinee"
by Willa Cather
Theme: Peole often choose to make sacrifices for the poeple they love.
Point of view: first person narration
Tone: sympathetic
Central Idea: the endurance of frontier life
Facts on Jack London (naturalist)
Highest paid author in America
His work has been translated into more languages than that of any other American author due to the universitality of his themes.
the Call of the Wild - Famous novel
To Build a Fire = most famous short story
Facts on "To Build a Fire"
by Jack London
Theme: the forces of nature can be deadly to those who ignore is lessons
Naturalistic idea: the distancing of humanity from the natural world
Facts on Stephen Crane
Naturalist
short life - died of tuberculosis at 28
First novel - Maggie: A girl of the Streets
Classic novel - The Red Badge of Courage: An episode of the American Civil War
Crane's most famous story - the open boat
Facts on "the Open Boat"
by Stephen Crane
Theme: Nature is a strong, often uncontrollable force indifferent to human suffering.
Points of View: Limited 3rd person; omniscient 3rd person
Thematic Options: nature's indifference to humanity; challenge and endurance; life and death.