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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
abstract
`having to do with concepts or qualities that cannot be directly seen or touched, such as love, justice, beauty, liberty
***allegory
***a story or poem in which characters, settings, and events stand for other people or events or for abstract ideas or qualities
alliteration
the repetition of the same or similar consonant sounds in words that are close together
allusion
`reference to someone or something that is known from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or some other branch of culture
analogy
a comparison made between two things to show how they are alike
anecdote
a brief story told to illustrate a point or serve as an example of something
antagonist
the opponent who struggles against the hero or protagonist in a story
apostrophe
a technique by which a writer addresses an inanimate object, an idea, or a person who is either dead or absent
audience
the people to whom a writer's words are directed
autobiography
an account of the writer's own life
ballad
a song or poem that tells a story
biography
an account of someone's life written by another person
blank verse
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
cadence
the natrual rhythmic rise and fall of a language as it is normally spoken
caesura
a pause or break within a line of poetry
static character
a character who does not change much in the course of a story
dynamic character
a character who changes in some important way as a result of the story's action
***flat character
***a one-dimensional character who has only one or two personality traits
round character
a multi-dimensional character who is complex, just as real people are
cliche
a word or phrase that has become lifeless because of overuse
climax
that point in a plot that creates the greatest intensity, suspense, or interest
colloquialism
expressions that are generally appropriate for conversation and informal writing, but not for formal writing or professional settings
concrete
having to do with objects or qualities that can be perceived by the senses
conflict
the struggle between opposing forces or characters in a story
connotation
the associations and emotional overtones that have become attached to a word or phrase in addition to its strict dictionary definition
consonance
the repetition of the same or similar final consonant sounds on accented syllables or in important words
couplet
two consecutive rhyming lines of poetry
denotation
the basic dictionary meaning of a word without any of its associated meanings
dialect
a way of speaking that is characteristic of a certain social group or of the inhabitants of a certain geographical area
denouement
the conclusion or unraveling of a story
diction
a speaker or writer's choice of words
elegy
a poem of mourning
epic
a long narrative poem which recounts the deeds of a heroic character
euphemism
a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept
exposition
that part of a plot in which the reader is given important background information on the characters, their problems, and the setting
fable
a short story told in prose or petry (usually using animals as characters) that teaches a practical lesson about life
figure of speech
a device used to produce figurative language, often comparing dissimilar things (ex: apostrophe hyperbole, irony, metaphor, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, and understatement)
flashback
a scene that interrupts the normal chronological sequence of events ina story to depict something that happened at an earlier time
foot
a metrical unit of poetry
foreshadowing
the use of hints and clues ot suggest what will happen later in a plot
free verse
poetry that does not conform to a regular meter or rhyme scheme
hyperbole
a figure of speech that uses an incredible exaggeration or overstatement for effect
iamb
a metrical foot in poetry that has an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, as in protect
iambic pentameter
a line of poetry that contains five iambic feet
imagery****
the use of language to evoke a picture of a person, a thing, a place, or an experience****
internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a line or consecutive lines of poetry
inversion
the reversal of the normal word order in a sentence or phrase
irony
a discrepancy between appearances and reality
dramatic irony
a character in the play or story thinks one thing is true, but the audience or reader knows better
situational irony
when there is a discrepancy between what is expect to happen and what really does happen
verbal irony
when someone says one thng but really means something else
metaphor
a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things without the use of words such as "like" or "as"
meter
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry
mood
the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a word
ode
a lyric poem on a seirous subject written in dignified language
onomatopoeia
formation of a word by imitating the sound associated with the thing designated as in "buzz" "hum" "cuckoo" "slap" or "splash"
oxymoron
a figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase
parable
a relatively short story that teaches a moral or lesson about how to lead a good life
paradox
a statement that appears self-contradictory, but that reveals a kind of truth
parallel structure / parallelism
the repetition of words or phrases that have similar grammatical structures
paraphrase
to state the meaning of a passage in one's own words
parody
a work that makes fun of another work by imitating some aspect of the writer's style
personification
a figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, attitudes, or characteristics
plagiarism
presenting the words or ideas of someone else as if they were your own
plot
the series of related events in a story or play
point of view
the vantage point from which the writer tells the story
first person
one of the characters tells the story using first-person pronouns such as "i" or "we"
***third-person limited
***an unknown narrator tells the story, but this narrator zooms in to focus on the thougths and feelings of only one character using third-person pronouns such as "he" "she" and "they"
third-person objective
a narrator who is totally impersonal and objective tells the story with no comment on any characters or events using third-person pronouns suh as "he" "she" and "they"
third-person omniscient
an all-knowing narrator tells the story using third-person pronouns such as "he" "she" and "they"
prose
fiction and nonfiction written in ordinary language and resembling everyday speech
protagonist
the cetnral character in a story, the one who initiates or drives the action
purpose
a writer's reason for writing
refrain
a word, phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated for effect several times in a poem
resolution
a conclusion of a story, when all or most of the conflicts have been settled.
rhetorical question
a question asked for an effect, and not actually requiring an answer
rhyme
the repetition of vowel sounds in accented syllables and all succeeding syllables
rhyme scheme
the pattern of rhymes in a poem commonly indicated with letters of the alphabet
rhythm
a rise and fall produced by the alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables in language
sarcasm
language whihc is bitter and caustic meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something
satire
a type of writing that ridicules the shortcomings of people or institutions in an attempt to bring about a change
setting
the time and location in which a story takes place
simile
a figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison between two unlike things using words such as "like" "as" "than" or "resembles"
stereotype
a fixed idea or conception of a character or an idea which does not allow for any individuality, often based on religious, social, or racial prejudices
stream of consciousness
a style of writing that portrays the inner, often chaotic, workings of a character's mind
style
the distinctive way in which a writer uses language
symbol
a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself and that also stands for something more than itself
theme
the insight about human life that is revealed in a literary work
tone
the attitude a writer takes toward the subject of a work, the characters in it, or the audience