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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Classes of Nouns
1. Common= Count + Mass

2. Proper

3. Abstract: a quality, an attribute, an idea, or intangible items; often employ the suffixes: -ness, -ty, -th

4. Concrete: tangible items

5. Collective: refers to one thing as members of a single unit
1. = cat/bean + water/darkness

2. Pepsi Cola, History 110, Spanish

3. 'goodness' 'loyalty' 'truth'

5. team, tribe, class
partitive expressions
enables mass nouns to be counted

- measurments, e.g. a spoonful of; a ton of
- a piece of
- a shred of
Making nouns ending with 'consonant + y' Plural
- Change 'y' to an 'i' and add 'es'

- Exception: Proper nouns ending in 'y'
- fly->flies; sky->skies

- Kennedy->Kennedys
Some nouns that end with 'o'
- add 'es'
- check a dictionary
- hero->heroes
- tomato->tomatoes
Some nouns ending in 'f' or 'fe'
- change to 'ves'
- check a dictionary
- wife->wives
- shelf->shelves
Nouns that can be either singular or plural

Look to context
fish, deer, sheep
politics, mathmatics, news
oats, ethics, headquarters
data, strata, phenomena
statistics, measles, shears
pliers, suds
Plural nouns that refer to items with two parts
- take a plural verb
- slacks, scissors, sunglasses, boxers, Daisy Dukes, trousers, britches
Noun's number depends on context referring to a group or individuals
family, tribe, choir,
band, team, fraternity, class, faculty
committee, staff, Congress
Classes of Nouns
1. Common= Count + Mass

2. Proper

3. Abstract: a quality, an attribute, an idea, or intangible items
common suffixes:
-ness, -ty, -th

4. Concrete: tangible items

5. Collective: refers to one thing as members of a single unit
1. = cat/bean + water/darkness

2. English, Spanish, Pepsi Cola, History 110

3. kindness; liberty; truth

4. stone, beach

5. team, tribe, class
Making Nouns Plural
- add 's'

- add 'es': certain endings ()

'es': nouns ending in
- s, ss, z, zz, x, ch, sh, tch
Making Nouns Possessive
- animate() nouns= add 's'

- inanimate() nouns= 'of' structure
- animate: person, animal or other creature

- inanimate: a thing or concept
- 'fit of a suit'; 'back of the bus'
Pronoun defined
A word that can be substituted for a noun, noun phrase, or other pronoun without changing the meaning of the sentence
Classes of Pronouns
1. Personal: substitutes for word that refers to a person()

2. Reflexive: the subject of a sentence performs an action on itself or refers to itself in some other way.()

3. Intensive: reflexive pronouns that immediately follow a noun or prounoun ()

4. Relative: substitutes for the noun being modified by an adjective clause and relates that clause to the noun.

5. Indefinite

6. Demonstrative

7. Interrogative
1. I, you, he, she, it, we, they

2. = personal pronoun + 'self' or 'selves'

3. "I myself painted that picture."
Relative Pronouns
defined: connect adjective or noun clauses to other elements of a sentence.

who/whom: refers to people


which: refers to animals, things, or collective nouns referring to persons

that: refers to animals or things or people
'The boy WHO was here is my brother"
"The boy (the boy was here) is my brother"

The person to WHOM you were speaking is the captain.
The person (you were speaking to the person) is the captain.

The dog THAT bit me was a family pet.
Indefinite Relative Pronouns
Defined: they introduce noun clauses; they have indefinite antecedents

- who/whoever
- whom/whomever
- what/whatever
- whichever
WHOEVER gave you that book did not give you the right one.
Using Relative Pronouns to Introduce Nominal Relative Clauses
Defined: relative pronouns are used as noun substitutes

- who/whoever
- whom/whomever
- what/whatever
- which/whichever
- that

"WHOEVER WINS THE RACE will receive the prize."
Singular Indefinite Pronouns
- each/either/neither
- anybody/ everybody/ nobody/ somebody
- anyone/ everyone/ no one/ someone
- anything, everything, nothing, something
- one
- another, other
- much, little
Prepositional phrases following indefinite pronouns usually do NOT influence the verb number ()
EACH (of the puppies) WAS healthy.
Singular or Plural Indefinite Pronouns
In cases involving a fraction or percent and the words:

- all, most, more
- part, some, such
- rest, any, none

The verb will be singular if bulk or a total number or amount is intended (mass noun), and plural if numbers are considered (count noun)
Thirty percent OF THE WATER is contaminated. (mass noun, so singular)

Thirty percent OF THE PROFESSORS are members of the organization. (count noun, so plural)

Some OF THE APPLES are spoiled. (count noun, so plural)

Some OF THE SOUP is cold. (mass noun, so singular)
Plural Indefinite() Pronouns
- both, few
- many, others, several
Indefinite pronouns are words that are substituted for nouns without referring to a definite person, place, or thing.
Gender and Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns and noun phrases preceded by indefinite determiners (each, every, any, either, etc.) requre the singluar masculine pronoun form (he, his, him).
EACH student must do HIS own work.
Demonstrative Pronouns
Defined: point out particular persons, places, or things, even though they may not be named directly

this, that
these, those


- THIS is the way to kick a football.
- THAT is a new coat.

- THIS apple is really good.
- THAT woman is a fine speaker.
Interrogative Pronouns
Defined: are used in asking questions

- who, whom, whose
- what, which