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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Besides religious freedom, what were two other things the colonists wanted?
riches (gold, silver, and gems) and land ownership (mostly restricted to the upper classes in England)
How long took to sail from England to Virginia
about four months at sea
What country established Jamestown
England (in May 1607)
What did Jamestown colonists look for instead of raising food or hunting?
Gold and silver (The colony almost failed because of starvation.)
What Jamestown leader set up the "No Work - No Food" rule
Captain John Smith
What problems did the Jamestown settlers have with water?
Not enough pure water, a swampy area, water-borne diseases
What state would you visit to see Jamestown today?
A strong building for protection from attack
How did John Rolfe help the Jamestown colony?
He planted a money-making crop (tobacco) and married Pocahantas, daughter of a local chief.
Lord Delaware became the __________ of the Jamestown colony in 1619.
Lord Delaware held this job in Jamestown in 1610.
Governor of Jamestown
What did Captain John Smith order the colonists to build for defense?
a blockhouse (type of fort)
What did John Rolfe plant?
tobacco (a money-making or "cash" crop)
What Indian tribe provided corn to the starving settlers at Jamestown?
What money-making crop did the Jamestown colonists raise?
What sport, now played indoors, was already popular in the Dutch and English colonies?
Bowling, formerly known as "nine-pins" because it was played with one less pin in Europe.
Who was made governor of the Jamestown colony?
Lord Delaware
Why did the Jamestown settlers decide not to give up on their colony?
Three ships arrived in the nick of time, bringing new supplies and 300 more men.
General Assembly
House of Burgesses (AKA representative form of government)
Jamestown form of government
General Assembly (Established 1619)
Persons elected to the House of Burgesses were called
The House of Burgesses was a representative form of government in which colony?
What is a General Assembly?
a group that makes laws for a larger group (AKA the House of Burgesses, established in 1619 in Jamestown)
What is a government with officials elected by the people called?
Representative government, (AKA a democracy)
What is a large farm that grows huge amounts of a certain crop called?
a plantation
What colony imported ninety single women to marry its colonists so they would not leave?
What country sold African slaves to the Jamestown settlers in 1619?
The Dutch (people from the Netherlands/Holland)
an investor
a person who lends money to a company and hopes to profit when the company makes money.
How did kings in England treat people who did have the exact same religious beliefs as the King, what did they do to them?
English Kings (and Queens) treated them badly; they took their lands, threw them in prison, even killed them.
How did the Plymouth Company raise money for the Pilgrims' voyage and supplies?
They sold stock shares to investors who hoped to make money if the colony was successful.
What did the Pilgrims hope to find in the New World?
Freedom to worship as they pleased.
Where did the Pilgrims settle?
New England - Plymouth, Massachusetts (They were supposed to go to Virginia, but were blown off course in a storm.)
Who were the Pilgrims?
a religious group that was persecuted by King James I for their beliefs.
form of government where power is held by the people, not a ruler or governing body
John Carver was elected governor of this group, according to the ideas found in the Mayflower Compact.
Mayflower Compact
an agreement, written on the Mayflower (ship) that said that people would obey laws agreed on by the majority, not laws given by a supreme leader or ruler.
Pilgrim settlement location (1620)
Plymouth, Massachusetts
Why were Pilgrims allowed to set up their own government?
The landed at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, far from the land specified in their charter, which was in Virginia.
How did the Pilgrim's beliefs hurt the growth of their colony?
They made everyone in the colony act according to their beliefs; they were very strict.
What colony was settled by well-educated, wealthy men and former government officials?
What did the Pilgrims and Puritan have in common?
They both came for religious reasons and both actually settled in Massachusetts.
How many settlers came to join the Puritans within a few years?
nearly 10,000
John Winthrop
Leader of the Puritan colony at Boston, Massachusetts
Puritan settlement location (1630)
Boston area (specifically St. Mary's City)
supplies needed for a trip or voyage are called:
What group wanted religious freedom but did not grant it to others?
Puritans, "bossy" people who settled at Boston, MA.
Did Lord Calvert set up a colony in Georgia, Maryland, or New York?
Maryland, and they had religious freedom.
Established a colony in 1634 in Maryland
Lord Calvert
The Toleration Act of 1649 allowed religious groups in Maryland to do what?
worship as they pleased
What religious leader established Rhode Island after he ran away from the Puritans to avoid prison for his beliefs?
Roger Williams
Carolina was split into two states, name them.
North Carolina and South Carolina
Country that settled Carolina in 1663
England (Sir Walter Raleigh, John White)
Dutch landlords who kept strict control over land ownership in New Netherland (later renamed New York)
In 1636, Rogers Williams established a settlement at Providence, in which state?
Rhode Island
Leader of 1636 settlement in Rhode Island
Roger Williams
New York
began as a Dutch colony, called New Netherland
Pastor Thomas Hooker founded a colony in an area with rich farmland in 1636; what state is this now?
This South Carolina port, still important today, was named for King Charles II, who granted the charter for Carolina.
Thomas Hooker started a settlement in
What year was Carolina divided into North and South Carolina? 1609, 1663, or 1729?
Which Indian tribe helped the founder of Rhode Island to survive?
Who settled Connecticut, Roger Williams, James Oglethorpe, or Thomas Hooker?
Thomas Hooker. (James Oglethorpe = GA, Roger Williams = RI)
Former name of New York (state)
New Netherland (before English took control from the Dutch in 1664)
King Charles II gave William Penn a charter for this colony in 1681.
New Hampshire
This state was part of Massachusetts for 39 years.
Sold to the King of England in 1679, it is now the state where the first presidential primaries are held.
New Hampshire
This colony's charter was granted to William Penn's father to pay a debt that King Charles II owed him.
Why did the English force the Dutch governor, Peter Styvesant to give up their claim to New Netherland (now New York)
They didn't want the Dutch, also a powerful seafaring nation, to set up colonies near English ones and perhaps take over.
Colonists (mostly former prisoners) settled in Savannah in 1733 in which southern state?
was once divided into three counties and was under control of Pennsylvania for a while
East Jersey and West Jersey combined to form
New Jersey
Established colony in Delaware region in 1682
William Penn
Established settlement (1733) in Georgia for former prison inmates
James Oglethorpe
Meaning of the name "Philadelphia"
City of Brotherly Love
Pennsylvania was settled by George Calvert, William Penn, or James Oglethorpe?
William Penn. (Lord George Calvert = Maryland, James Oglethorpe = Georgia)
This colony was founded on land given to William Penn so Pennsylvania would have access to the Atlantic Ocean for shipping and fishing
What two colonies joined to form New Jersey?
East Jersey and West Jersey
What were two important individual rights granted in Pennsylvania?
freedom of religion and the right to elect public officials (both choices were determined by the King or Queen back in England)
Which colony was set up for former prison inmates?
William Penn
established colony in Pennsylvania (1681)
What clever apothecary (drug store owner) sold advertising in a newspaper he printed himself and is known as "The Father of Modern Advertising?"
John Houghton
By the late 1600's the thirteen original colonies had a combined population of about how many?
200,000 to 300,000 (2003 Census shows Erie County alone with about 280,000!)
Farmers, shopkeepers, artisans, and teachers made up which class?
middle class
Merchants and planters (plantation owners) made up which class?
wealthy class
The 13 American colonies developed over a period of about 50, 75 or 125 years?
125 years (about 1607 - 1733)
Unskilled workers, indentured servants, and slaves made up which class?
lower class
What is an indentured servant?
a person who has to work 4-7 years to pay off their passage to America, they are not free until this debt is paid.
What were the three economic and social classes of the colonists?
wealthy class, middle class and lower class
Why did the colonists think they needed slave (Indian and later African) labor and indentured servants?
The cash (money-making) crops required lots of hard, unskilled workers and most people would not do this work willingly.
How did colonists preserve their food?
Meat and fish were salted or smoked, fruits and vegetables were dried, pickled, or kept in cool, dry cellars.
Name three colonies that did allow religious freedom.
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Maryland
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut
the four New England colonies
Region which grew important crops such as corn and wheat, AKA the "bread colonies":
middle colonies
Region with broad, fertile farmlands and a warm climate where rice, tobacco and indigo grew well:
southern colonies
Region with rocky soil and long, cold winters where shipbuilding, ironworking, fishing and lumbering were important:
New England colonies
The five southern colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
What did colonists use for cooking and heat?
open hearth fireplace and sometimes a brick oven built into the wall beside it
What were the three colonial regions?
New England, middle colonies, southern colonies
Why were epidemics (widespread outbreaks of disease) such a problem for the colonists?
They had little medical knowledge on how to either treat or prevent disease.
Why were New England farms smaller than farms to the south?
The soil was rocky and heavily wooded; it was hard to clear land for farming beyond the farmer's own needs.
How did poor people pay for their transportation to America and for supplies?
They sold their freedom and their labor for the next 4-7 years, after which they were free.
How was kidnapping involved in getting colonists?
Young men were kidnapped and sold as indentured servants for 4-7 years.
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
the four middle colonies
What plant, grown in the colonies was used to make a valuable dark blue dye?
What document did the Pilgrims sign on a ship that set up self-government in an American colony?
The Mayflower Compact
What four countries did King James rule over in 1620?
England, France, Ireland, and Scotland