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12 Cards in this Set

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litotes
in rhetoric, a figure in which an affirmative is expressed by a negation of the contrary. A "citizen of no mean city" is, therefore, "a citizen of an important or famous city."
parallel syntactic structures
using the same part of speech or syntactic structure in (1) each element of a series, (2) before and after coordinating conjunctions (and, but, yet, or, for, nor), and (3) after each of a pair of correlative conjunctions (not only...but also, neither...nor, both...and, etc.). Below are examples for definitions (1) and (3):
(1) Over the hill, through the woods, and to grandmother's house

we go.
(3) That vegetable is both rich in vitamins and low in calories.
paradox
a statement which seems self-contradictory, but which may be true in fact.
"Success is counted sweetest
By those who ne'er succeed..." Emily Dickinson
parody
a literary composition which imitates the characteristic style of a serious work or writer and uses its features to treat trivial, nonsensical material in an attempt at humor or satire.
pedantry
a display of narrow-minded and trivial scholarship or arbitrary adherence to rules and forms.
periodic sentence structure
a sentence written so that the full meaning cannot be understood until the end; e.g. Across the stream, beyond the clearing, from behind a fallen tree, the lion emerged.
post hoc fallacy
(from the Latin: post hoc, ergo propter hoc meaning "after this, therefore because of this.") This fallacy of logic occurs when the writer assume that an incident that precedes another is the cause of the second incident. For example: "Governor X began his first term in January. Three months later, the state suffered severe economic depression. Therefore, Governor X causes the state's depression." The chronological order of events does not establish a cause-effect relationship.
spatial ordering
organization of information using spatial cues such as top to bottom, left to right, etc.
syllogism
a form of reasoning in which two statements or premises are made and a logical conclusion is drawn from them; a form of deductive reasoning. Example:
Major Premise: J and G Construction builds unsafe buildings.
Minor Premise: J and G Construction built the Tower Hotel.
Conclusion: The Tower Hotel is an unsafe building. (see deduction)
understatement
deliberately representing something as much less than it really is. Jonathan Swift wrote, "Last week I saw a woman flayed, and you will hardly believe how much it altered her appearance."
satire
a literary work in which vices, abuses, absurdities, etc. are held up to ridicule and contempt; use of ridicule, sarcasm, irony, etc. to expose vices, abuses, etc.
rhetoric
the art of using words effectively in writing or speaking so as to influence or persuade.