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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the elements of Ethos? Define and give examples.
1. Good Sense: The writer displays sound knowledge of his or her subject, sufficient for the purpose at hand.

2. Good Will: You show good will toward your reader by writing in language that your audience understands and anticipating their need for explanation and clear examples.

3. Good Moral Character: Character shows in what we say and do.
What are the types of Ethos? Define and give examples.
1. Extrinsic Ethos: Derives from the reputation that the speaker or writer brings to the occasion. It is what the audience believes about the speaker or writer before a word is uttered or page read. It can come from expertise or professional qualifications. Example: You are inclined to believe what your doctor tells you about your health.

2. Intrinsic Ethos: The impression of the persion writing or speaking created by the text itself. Every arguer has the opportunity to create a favorable or unfavorable ethos.
What is pathos?
It is defined as an appeal that incites the audience's emotions.
You can do this by choosing words carefully or choosing powerful examples.
Reasonableness in argument can take many forms. What are the five forms?
1. I Am Not an Extremist
2. I Know the Other Side and They Are Wrong
3. I See Merit in the Other Side
4. I Concede One or More Points to the Other Side (Concession: the graceful acknowledgment that on thus point or in that matter, some other argument has merit.
5. I May Be Wrong, But...
What is a disclaimer?
It is a claim that anticipates and answers an audience's negative reaction. Any time your audience would be likely to think ill of you, to slap a label on you, or to attribute a position to you that you do not hold, you may need to anticipate their reaction and deny before being accused.
What is a euphemism?
If you want to avoid a certian word, you can usually substitute a more neutral or more attractive word, called a euphemism. They abound whenever the subject is diplomacy, politics, human categorization, or death.

Example: You would say "Sorry to hear about your father," then "I heard your father died yesterday."
What is a periphrasis or circumlocution?
They both mean using many words to say what could be said in a few; not necessarily dishonest. Example: "You're not going to get the job," instead of being cruelly blunt, you could give a lengthy explanation about why.
What is a fallacy?
It is used to describe all such errors in argument, regardless of their source.
Name the 15 fallacies.
1. Hasty Generalization
2. False Cause (Post Hoc)
3. Slippery Slope
4. Straw Man
5. False Analogy
6. False Dilemma (Either/Or)
7. Begging the Question
8. Non Sequitur
9. Red Herring
10. Complex Question
11. Equivocation
12. Ad Populum Argument
13. Appeal to Ignorance
14. Ad Hominem Appeal
15. Faulty Emotional Appeals
Define and give examples of 5 fallacies.
1. Hasty Generalization: Making a general statement on the basis of an inadequate sample of evidence.

Example: I saw a bluebird last week. They must be common around here. (Not necessarily; you might have had a rare sighting).

2. False Cause (Post Hoc): "After this, therefore because of this." Assuming that one event caused another because it preceded it in time.

Example: The stock market crashed in 1929 and the Great Depression followed. The crash of the stock market caused the Great Depression. (Maybe both events happened because of other causes).

3. Slippery Slope: Assuming that if a certain step is taken, a whole series of undesirable consequences will follow.

Example: If Elizabeth stops eating meat, pretty soon she will waste away from malnourishment. (Not if she obtains the right kind of protein from other foods).

4. Straw Man: Presenting an extreme or a very weak case as an example of the argument you want to refute.

Example: My opponent, who supports legalizaed marijuana, wants to live in a society in which people are spaced out on drugs all the time. (A supporter of marijuana legalization would be very unlikely to make this argument).

5. False Analogy: Going beyond simply pointing out a resembalnce between two things or situations to claim that the things or situations are the same or call for the same response.

Example: The legal penalties for the mistreatment of animals should be as severe as the legal penalties for the mistreatment of children. Both animals and children depend on humans for kindness and nurturing. (It might be argued that animals and children are essentially different and what is owed to them may differ).

6. False Dilemma (Either/Or): Arguing that there are only two choices in a situation and that your choice is the correct one because the other is unthinkable.

Example: We're damned if we do and we're damned if we don't. (Which is worse?)