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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is energy?
The capacity to do work.
Two types of energy
- Kinetic energy - energy of motion
- Potential energy - stored energy (sugars)
Laws of Thermodynamics
- 1st Law: energy is constant; it cannot be created or distroyed - only transferred or transformed
- 2nd Law: every energy transfer increases disorder or randomness of the universe
- Quantity of energy is constant; quality not (heat)
Measure of disorder or randomness
- Food energy is measured calories
ATP Energy for Cells
ATP (adenosine triphophate) - energy currency of cells
- used to drive all cellular activities
- a nucleotide (monomer of DNA/RNA)
- energy of ATP stored in phosphate groups
How does ATP Generate Energy
- Bonds betw P's broken by hydrolysis (7.3kCal of energy)
- ATP breakdown & regeneration (ATP cycle) via carbs & fats stable energy used to generate ATP
- ATP only short-term storage
-ATP energizes other molecules; it is brpoken down to ADP and P is added via PHOSPHORYLATION
-ADP + P = ATP
ATP cycle
-cellular respiration creates ATP
-spoecialized proteins that are catalysts in chem rxns
-lower energy of activation to speed rxn
Enzyme Substrate
-Substrate specific
-active site on ezyme wher substrate binds like a key
-enzyme facilitates conversion of substrate to product
-enzyme inhibition prevents ezyme from binding to substrate
-denaturation of enzyme via temperature & pH changes

3 ways
-via plasma membrane which is differentially permeable
-Diffusion is movement of substances across the membrane from high to low concentration
(1) PASSIVE Trans.= no energy
- O2, CO2,H2O = simple diffusion
-ions & polar molecules = facilitated diffusion
-down concentration gradient
-osmosis pertains to water
-solute remains the same, can't move
(2) Active Trans = energy + protein aka pump
- from Lo to Hi (up its gradient)
-sodium potassium pump
- charged atoms
(3) Bulf Trans = energy for large particles
-exocytosis - out of cell
-endocytosis - into cell
-molecules fused to plasma membrane
OSMOSIS in Different SOlutions w/ Different Tonicities (ANIMAL)
1. Isotonic Solution - cell neither gains or loses water
2. Hypertinic Solution - cell loses water (will shrivel)
3. Hypotonic Solution - cell gains water (can explode)
OSMOSIS in Different SOlutions w/ Different Tonicities (PLANT)
1. Isotonic Solution - plant cell remains nromal neither gains or loses
2. Hypertonic Solution - plant cytoplasm shrinks via plasmolysis
3. Hypotonic Solution - plant cytoplasm becomes turgid; cell wall will not break