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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Endocrine cells...
release their secretions directly into body fluids.
Hormones, known as catecholamines are derivatives of...
amino acids
Peptide hormones are...
composed by amino acids
List 4 characteristics of steroid hormones.
1. are similar structurally to cholesterol
2. are produced by reproductive glands
3.bind to receptors within the cell
4. are lipids
List 4 factors concerning peptide hormones.
1.They are first synthesized as prohormones
2. Prohormones can be activated before or after their release
3. They remain in circulation for relatively short periods of time.
4. Peptide hormones interact with receptors on the surface of their target cells.
Steroid hormones...
bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.
When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the...
second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
Steroid hormones...
bind to intracellular receptors.
The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually...
adenyl cyclase
When adenyl cyclase is activated,...
cAMP is formed
When steroid hormones bind to their receptors...
gene transcription occurs
The most complex endocrine response involve the...
hypothalamus
Changes in blood osmotic pressure would affect the levels of______ in the blood.
ADH
Hormones that control the function of the anterior pituitary gland are released from the_______ of the hypothalamus.
median eminence
The hypothalamus controls secretions of the anterior pituitary by way of...
releasing and inhibiting hormones
Neurons of the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture...
ADH
Neurons of the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture...
Oxytocin
The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis is...
MSH
List 4 hormones produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis.
FSH
TSH
ACTH
GH
The hormone oxytocin...
promotes uterine contractions
Neurons of the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture...
ADH
List 4 characteristics of GH.
promotes bone growth
" muscle growth
is glucose sparing
promotes amino acid uptake by cells
Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called...
somatomedins
Neurons of the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture...
Oxytocin
The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is...
TSH
The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis is...
MSH
The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in the testes is...
FSH
List 4 hormones produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis.
FSH
TSH
ACTH
GH
The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is...
prolactin
The hormone oxytocin...
promotes uterine contractions
The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is...
somatotropin
List 4 characteristics of GH.
promotes bone growth
" muscle growth
is glucose sparing
promotes amino acid uptake by cells
Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called...
somatomedins
The effects of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissue include...
increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation
Thyroid hormone contains a mineral called...
iodine
The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is...
TSH
Thyroid hormone does not readily diffuse out of the thyroid follicles because...
it is in a colloidal state.
The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in the testes is...
FSH
Throxine plays a pivotal role in body temperature. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is...
prolactin
The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is...
somatotropin
The effects of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissue include...
increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation
Thyroid hormone contains a mineral called...
iodine
Thyroid hormone does not readily diffuse out of the thyroid follicles because...
it is in a colloidal state.
Throxine plays a pivotal role in body temperature. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is...
calcitonin
The condition known as goiter can result from too much...
TSH
The C cells of the thyroid gland produce...
calcitonin
Increased levels of the hormone______ will lead to augmented levels of calcium ion in the blood.
parathormone
Parathyroid hormone is antagonistic to calcitonin. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Angiotensin 1 is converted to angiotensin 11 by converting enzymes in the...
lungs
The enzyme "renin" is responsible for the activation of...
angiotensin
The chief cells of the parathyroid glands produce a hormone that...
increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.
The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex produces...
androgens
The zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces...
glucocorticoids
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex produces...
mineralcorticoids
A hormone that promotes the conversion of lipids to glucose and the formation of glycogen in the liver is...
cortisol
A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion concentration of the blood is...
aldosterone
Hyposecretion of cortisol can cause...
Addison's disease
A hormone that is synergistic to GH is...
calcitonin
Pinealocytes produce...
melatonin
cells of the adrenal cortex produce...
aldosterone
The interstitial cells of the testes produce...
testosterone
Follicle cells in the ovary produce large quantities of____when stimulated by FSH.
estrogen
The hormone that causes a decrease in FSH levels in both males and females is...
inhibin
The hormone that is important for maintenance of the immune system is...
thymosin
The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is...
epinephrine
During the resistance phase of the general adaptation system...
lipid reserves are mobilized.
The exhaustion phase of the GAS is given by...
decreased resistance to disease and infection
Cholecalciferol is synthesized by the...
epidermis of the integumentary system
A kinase is an enzyme that performs...
phosphorylation
An activated G protein can trigger...
the opening of Ca+ ion channels in the membrane
the release of Ca+ ions from intracellular stores.
Ca+ ions serve as messengers, generally in combination with an intracellular protein known as...
calmodulin
LH activates both cAMP and a second messenger known as phosphatidyl inositol, which causes the release of Ca+ from intracellular stores. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.