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10 Cards in this Set

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In humans, what are the major circulating adrenal steroids that produce the three main types of adrenal steroid actions?
Cortisol/Aldosterone/Dehydroepiandrosterone. Aldosterone and cortisol account for more than 90-95% of all mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid activity respectively. Most adrenal androgenic activity is due to the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone.
What is the relationship between a hypothalamic tumor and the thyroid gland.
A hypothalamic tumor secreting large amounts of TRH would stimulate the pituitary gland to secrete increased amounts of TSH. The secretion of thyroid hormones would increase and this would result in an elevated heart rate. a patient with either a pituitary tumor secreting large amounts of TSH or Graves disease would have low plasma levels of TRH b/c of feedback. Both TRH and TSH levels would be elevated in endemic goiter, but the heart rate would be depressed b/c of the low rate of T4 secretion.
List 2 symptoms of hypothyroidism.
Lethargy and myxadema. Low plasma levels of TSH indicate that the abnormality is in either the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland. because the pituitary was responsive to the administration of TRH, this suggests that pituitary function is normal and that the hypothalamus is producing insufficient amounts of TRH.
Regarding storage, is there a difference between steroid and peptide hormones?
Steroid hormones are not stored to any appreciable extent in their endocrine producing glands. This is true for cortisol, which is produced in the adrenal cortex. in contrast, there are appreciable stores of thyroid and peptide hormones in their endocrine producing glands.
What is the neurological origen of emission?
Emission is stimulated by sympathetic nervous system impulses that leave the cord at T-12-L-2 and pass to the genital organs through the hypogastric and pelvic sympathetic nervous plexus.
The cells of the zona glomerulosa secrete most of the aldosterone. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. These cells have receptors for angiotensin 2, which is a major controller of aldosterone secretion.
The fetal portion of the placenta releases what at the time of labor?
Prostaglandins in high concentrations at the time of labor. This release is associated with deterioration of the placenta. prostaglandins, especially PGE2, strongly stimulate uterine smooth muscle.
After menopause, why are there high rates of FSH secretion?
The absence of feedback inhibition by estrogen and progesterone results in high rates of FSH secretion. Woman taking estrogen as part of hormone replacement therapy for symptoms associated with post menopausal conditions have suppressed levls of FSH owing to the inhibitory effect of estrogen.
Does glucagon have any effect in muscle?
Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver, but it has no physiological effects in muscle. Both glucagon and cortisol increase gluconeogenesis, and cortisol impairs glucose uptake by muscle.
In general peptide hormones are water soluble and are not highly bound by plasma proteins. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE- ADH, a neurohypophyseal peptide hormone, is virtually unbound by plasma proteins. In contrast, steroid and thyroid hormones are highly bound to plasma proteins.