Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name hormones released by the hypothalamus
- TRH (thyroid-releasing hormone) - GnRH (growth hormone-releasing hormone)
Name 8 hormones released by the pituitary gland
- ACTH - Growth hormone - TSH - FSH - LH - Prolactin - Oxytocin - ADH
What hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland?
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
What hormones are secreted by the pancreas
glucagon and insulin
Name hormones secreted by the adrenal gland
cortisol, aldosterone, and norepinephrine
What are the 4 structural groups that categorize hormones?
1. Peptides and proteins 2. Steroids 3. Amino Acid derivatives 4. Fatty Acid derivatives
What type of structural hormone is insulin?
peptide and protein hormone
What are 2 types of hormones derived from the amino acid tyrosine?
- thyroid hormones: a double thyrosine with either 3 or 4 iodine atoms - catecholamines: include epinephrine or norepinephrine are used as hormones and neurotransmitters
Name 2 other amino acids and the hormones that they synthesize
1. Tryptophan - a precursor to serotonin and the pineal hormone melatonin 2. Glutamic acid - a precursor to histamine
What are eicosanoids?
a large group of molecules derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as Arachadonic acid
Name the principal groups of hormones derived from eicosanoids or arachadonic acid?
- prostaglandins - prostacyclins - leukotrienes - thromboxanes
What 3 factors determine the concentration of hormones?
1. rate of production 2. rate of delivery 3. rate of degradation or elimination
What organs produce thyroid hormone?
- thyroid gland - pituitary gland - peripheral muscle
What are the hormones produced by the alpha and beta cells of the pancreas?
- alpha cells produce glucagon - beta cells produce insulin
Explain how control of glucose exhibit positive and negative feedback
- positive feedback occurs when an increase in blood glucose stimulates the release of insulin - negative feedback occurs when glucose levels fall and the pancreas stops releasing insulin
What hormones stimulate and inhibit secretion of growth hormone?
- growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates secretion of growth hormone - somatostain, released by hypothalamus, inhibits growth hormone
Name a hormone that is secreted when growth hormone binds to receptors in the liver
insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)
What disorder is caused by an excess of ACTH secretion?
Cushing's syndrome
What are physiologic effects of IGF-1?
- stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth - simulates the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasdts - stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues
What are the most common secretory pituitary tumors?
Deficiency in ADH or insevsitivity of the kidneys to ADH can result in what disease state?
diabetes insipidus, which is manifested as polyuria and polydispia
Inappropriate secretion of ADH in excess amounts results in what disease state?
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and causes hyponatremia
What are the 2 general causes of diabetes insipidus?
1. Central (or neurogenic) - a failure of the posterior lobe of the pituitary to secrete adequate amounts of ADH 2. Nephrogenic - a failure of the kidney to respond to adequate amounts of circulating ADH
True/False: Small tumors tend to cause and increase of hormone secretion
- Small tumors tend to increase hormone production - Large tumors tend to decrease hormone production (tumor becomes space-occupying lesion & compresses and retards hormone production) The correct answer is: True
Where are the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins located?
between the capillary beds of the lower hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
What vessel carries hormones from the pituitary gland to the systemic circulation?
hypophyseal vein
What are physical manifestations of a large pituitary tumor?
- headaches - bitemporal hemianopsia
What are the major target organs of growth hormone?
liver and adipose tissue
What is the effect of growth hormone on insulin activity?
- growth hormone anti-insulin activity - it supresses the ability of insulin to stimulate uptake of glucose in peripheral tissues - enhances glucose synthesis in the liver - GH also stimulates insulin secretion (leading to hyperinsulinemia)
What is acromegaly?
- excessive secretion of growth hormone in adults - causes an overgrowth of bone and connective tissue; leads to coarse features - excessive growth hormone and IGF-1 also leads to metabolic derangements, including glucose intolerance
What are clinical features of acromegaly?
- widening of the hands and feet - coarsening of the facial features - frontal sinus enlargement - prominent supra-orbital ridges - mandible frows downward and forward (prognathism)
How is hypersecretion of GH diagnosed?
- measure GH levels 2 hours after oral glucose load (normally GH levels should decrease) - if oral glucose test is positive, MRI to localize tumor
What is the treatment for GH secreting tumor?
1. Trans-sphenoidal microsurgery (Tx of choice) 2. Radiotherapy (but it takes too long for onset of effects to occur) 3. Medical Managment - use of dopamine agonist (cabergoline), somatostain analogues (octreotide, lacreotide), GH receptor blockers (Pegvisomant)
What is the most common secretory pituitary tumor?
What are signs and symptoms of prolactinomas?
- in men, gynecomastia, loss of libido, impotence, and tumor symptoms (headache, visual impairment - in women, increased bilateral discharge (Galactorrhea), Amenorrhea, infertility, & S/S of decreased estrogen (osteopenia, vaginal dryness, hot flashes, irritability)
True/False: Micro-prolactinomas are more common in men
False. Micro-prolactinomas are more common in women. Macro-prolactinomas are more common in men The correct answer is: False
What prolactin level usually implies prolactinomas?
> 200 ng/mL
What are some causes of small elevation in prolactin levels?
- pregnancy - stress - nipple stimulation - drugs (phenothiazines, methyldopa, cimetadine) - hypothyroidism - chronic renal failure - some chest wall lesions
What is the treatment for hyperprolactinemia?
1. Bromocriptine (dopamine agaonist) causes shrinkage of the tumor and restores gonadal function and fertility 2. Trans-sphenoidal surgery - used when the patient has visual field abnormalities, neurological symptoms, or when the patient cannot tolerate medical treatment
What is the cause of hyperthyroidism?
- caused by excess ciruculating T4 or T3 - 90% of cases are caused by Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, toxic solitary goiter
What is the pathophysiological cause of Graves Disease?
- results from IgG antibodies against the TSH receptor - antibodies are called thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb)
True/False: Atrial Fib is common in all patients with Graves Disease
Atrial fib is rare in young patients but occurs in over 50% of male patients over 60 y/o The correct answer is: False
What are cardinal signs of Graves' disease?
- Conjunctival edema and ulceration - Diffuse goiter - Exophtalmos - Increased lacrimation - Lid lag (usually on downard eye movement) - Lid retration - Peri-orbital puffiness - Pretibial myxoedema - Tachycardia with a bounding pulse - Vascular bruit can be heard over these goiters
A 60 y/o patient presents with atrial fib, heart failure, and weight loss. What should the clinician be suspicious of?
What are treatment options for hyperthyroidism?
1. Anti-thyroid drugs - Carbimazole or methimazole followed by propylthiouracil (PTU) 2. Beta-blocking drugs - for the initial stages of management 3. Sub-total thyroidectomy 4. Radioactive iodine therapy
What are side-effects of thyroidectomy?
- hypothyroidism (will have to be on Synthroid) - hypoparathyroidism