Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/54

Click to flip

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
most common cause nephritic syndrome
membranous nephropathy
what are Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions
kidney damage due to longstanding dm
which lab test determines whether or not dka pat can be switched from IV to sub cut insulin
anion gap
Waterhouse-Friedrichson syndrome
bilateral adrenal hemorrhage from dic
addisons disease and response to ACTH stimulation
present with tan, hypokalemia, hypernatremia with low cortisol and ACTH

response to ACTH challenge is minimal change in plasma cortisol (known as primary adrenal insufficiency)
distinguish primary and secondary adrenal deficiency
Addison's (primary) adrenal gland doesn't work, little if any response to ACTH stimulation. in secondary, pituitary doesn't work to produce ACTH, so normal increase in cortisol production with addition ACTH
calculated osmolality
normal level
2x (glucose+urea+sodium)
normal = 10
parathyroid production and ionized Ca
Low ionized Ca dirtily stimulates parathyroid to produce PTH, which acts to increase ionized Ca
secondary hypoparathyroidism
deficit in vit d causing low ca and high pth
diGeorge syndrome
aplasia of parathyroids at birth causing undetectable pthand critical low ca
another name for pseudohypoparathyroidism
phenotypic
lab
Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy syndrome characteristic phenotype with stocky build, irregular length of metacarpal and metatarsal bones, and hyper pigmentation
hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are noted on laboratory evaluation.
ricketts
cause
appearance
low ca due to vit d deficiency
low ca, vit d, phosphorous
(400Iu daily vit d!)
present with craniotabes, rickettic rosary
what 2 med classes antagonize vit d
glucocorticoids
anti-convulsants
vit d genesis in 3 steps
cholesterol -> d3 at skin
d3 -> 25(OH)d3 at liver
25)OH)dc -> 1,25(OH)d3 at liver
ada screening for dm
anyone with vmi >= 25 or any adult over 45
hga1c, random glucose, or 2 hr gtt
A1C or w hour gtt diagnostic crit for dm
2 hour gtt over 200mg/dl
A1C over 6.5
what screen for metabolic disorder is needed in child dx of dm1
screen celiac disease with ttg or anti-endomysial
drug class leading to hypoglycemia in elderly
sulfonylureas (glimeperide et al)
drug class leading to fluid overload and exacerb of chf
thiazolidinedones (pioglitazone et al)
nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy
microvascular disease at retina
hard exudates
no new vessel formation
proliferative diabetic retinopathy
advanced microvascular disease at retina
new bloood vessel formation covers optic disc
average fluid deficit in dka
100ml/kg
calculate serum osmolality
2Na+glucose/18+BUN/2.8
5 causes of osmolality decrease
SIADH, hyponatremia, overhydration, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism
raiu increased
Graves
Toxic adenoma
toxic multinodular goiter
raiu decreased
exogenous thyroxine source
thyroiditis
iodine toxicity
1st line tx of subacute thyroiditis
NSAIDS
what does HcG do to tsh
suppression tsh with normal or near normal t4 by cross-reacting with tsh receptor
which antiviral can precipitate hypoglycemia
pentqmidine
pro-insulin and c-peptide lefels in native insulin production
elevate c-peptide and pro-insulin
2 sources of non insulin-mediated hypoglycemia
adrenal insufficiency
liver disease
what does igf level do in pituitary adenoma producing hypoglycemia
high
what is igf level if hypoglycemia is caused by islet-cell tumor
low
what is most common cause hypothyroidism in US
Hashimoto's
tx of myxedema coma
levothyroxine 500mcg iv
hydrocortisone 100mg iv
3 classes drugs inhibiting levothyroxine absorption
1: divalent cations (ferrous sulfate, magnesium)
2: acid suppressors (omeprazole, pantoprazole, cimetidine et al)
3: cholesterol binding resins (cholesterimine)
type A and type B lactic acidosis
Type A lactic acidosis is most commonly caused by tissue hypoperfusion or hypoxia resulting in a decrease production of tissue ATP, resulting in anaerobic metabolism and production of lactic acid.

Type B lactic acidosis results from overproduction of lactate from muscle exertion or malignancies with heavy tumor burdens.
initial labs for ed
morning testosterone
tsh
lipid profile
6 absorption deficiencies after gastric bypass
copper
folate
iron
B12
vit d
calcium
who's at greatest risk for thyroid storm
women 30's-40's
1st drug tx in thyroid storm
betablocker for tachycard
2/3 of adrenal insufficiency have what resulting comorbidity
hypoglycemia
tx of choice for unconfirmed adrenal insufficiency
dexamethasone
three signs of vit B12 deficit
macrocytic anemia
posterior column deficits
decreased pinprick
three signs of porphyria attack
progressive neuro
hematuria without RBC's
abd pain
10kg wt loss associated with what % decrease CV, ca, and all-cause mortality
25% decrease in cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortalityq
most common abnormality in primary adrenal insufficiency
hypoglycemia
TOC Graves
Radioactive thyroid ablation
TOC Graves in preg
PTU
Nodule low tsh workup
RAIU scan
cold=>FNA
hot=>endocrinology or surg
Nodule high tsh workup
FNA

if positive think papillary ca
serum osmolality calculation
2Na + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8
what is associated with decreased osmolality
SIADH
causes of elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis
MUDPILES
Methanol
Uremia
DKA
Paraldehyde
Iron
Lactate
Ethanol
Salycylates