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83 Cards in this Set

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WHAT IS A HORMONE?
A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE RELEASED BY A GLAND THAT CONTROLS OR AFFECTS PROCESSES IN OTHER GLANDS OR BODY SYSTEMS.
WHAT IS AN ENDOCRINE GLAND?
GLAND THAT SECRETES CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES DIRECTLY INTO THE BLOOD; ALSO CALLED A DUCTLESS GLAND.
WHAT IS AN EXOCRINE GLAND?
A GLAND THAT SECRETES CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES TO NEARBY TISSUES THROUGH A DUCTL ALSO CALLED A DECTED GLAND.
WHAT IS HOMEOSTASIS?
THE NATURAL TENDANCY OF THE BODY TO KEEP THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND MEABOLISM STEADY AND NORMAL.
WHAT IS METABOLISM?
THE SUM OF CELLULAR PROCESSES THAT PRODUCE THE ENERGY AND MOLECULES NEEDED FOR GROWTH AND REPAIR.
WHAT IS THE HYPOTHALAMUS?
IT LOCATED DEEP WITHIN THE CEREBRUM. HYPOTHALAMIS CELLS ACT BOTH AS NERVE CELLS AND GLAND CELLS.IT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CNS AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. SECRETES HORMONES TO THE PITUITARY GLAND.
WHAT ARE THE HOMONES SECRETED FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS?
GHRH
GHIH
CRH
TRH
GnRH
PRH
PIH
WHAT IS GHRH?
GROWTH HORMONE RELEASING HORMONE. SECRETED FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS, TARGETS THE PITUITARY GLAND. STIMULATED RELEASE OF HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE.
WHAT IS GHIH?
GROWTH HORMONE INHIBITING HORMONE. SECRETED FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS. SUPRESSES RELEASE OF GROWTH HORMONE.
WHAT IS CRH?
CORTICOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE. SECRETED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS TARGETS THE PITUITARY. STIMULATED RELEASE OF ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
WHAT IS TRH?
THYROTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE. SECRETED FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS. TARGETS THE PITUITARY. STIMULATES RELEASE OF THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE.
WHAT IS GnRH?
GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE. SECRETED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS. TARGETS THE PITUITARY. STIMULATES RELEASE OF LUTEINISING HORMONE AND FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
WHAT IS PRH?
PROLACTIN RELEASING HORMONE. SECRETED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS TARGETS THE PITUITARY GLAND. STIMULATES RELEASE OF PROLACTIN.
WHAT IS PIH?
PROLACTIN INHIBITING HORMONE. SECRETED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS. TARGETS THE PITUITARY. SUPPRESSES RELEASE OF PROLACTIN.
WHAT ARE THE HORMONES OF THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND?
ADH
OXYTOCIN
WHAT IS ADH?
SECRETED BY THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. TARGETS THE KIDNEYS. STIMULATES INCREASED REABSORPTION OF WATER INTO BLOOD VOLUME.
WHAT IS OXYTOCIN?
SECRETED BY THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. TARGETS THE UTERUS, BREASTS AND KIDNEYS. STIMULATES UTERINE CONTRACTIONS AND MILK RELEASE.
WHAT ARE THE HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND?
GH
ACTH
TSH
FSH
LH
PRL
WHAT IS GH?
GROWTH HORMONE. ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. TARGETS ALL CELLS. STIMULATED BODY GROWTH IN CHILDHOOD; CAUSES SWITH TO FATS AS ENERGY SOURCE.
WHAT IS ACTH?
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. PITUITARY GLAND TARGETS THE THE ADRENAL CORTEXES. STIMULATES RELEASE OF CORTICOSTEROIDAL HORMONES CORTISOL AND ALDOSTERONE.
WHAT IS TSH?
THYROIDAL STIMULATING HORMONE. ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. STIMULATES THE THYROID. STIMULATED RELEASE OF THYROID HORMONES THYROXINE AND TRIIODOTHYRONINE.
WHAT IS FSH?
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. TARGETS OVARIES OR TESTES. STIMULATES DEVELOPMENT OF SEX CELLS
WHAT IS LH?
LUTEINIZING HORMONE. ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. TARGETS THE OVARIES OR TESTES. STIMULATES RELEASE OF HORMONES (ESTROGEN, PROGESTERONE, TESTOSTERONE)
WHAT IS PRL?
PROLACTIN. ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. TARGETS MAMMARY GLANDS. STIMULATES PRODUCTION AND RELEASE OF MILK.
WHAT ARE THE HORMONES OF THE THYROID GLAND?
THYROXINE, T4
TRIIODOTHYRONINE, T3
CALCITONIN
WHAT IS T4?
THYROXINE. THYROID GLAND, TARGETS ALL CELLS. STIMULATES CELL METABOLISM.
WHAT IS T3?
TRIIODOTHYRONINE. THYROID GLAND TARGETS ALL CELLS. STIMULATES CELL METABOLISM.
WHAT IS CALCITONIN?
THYROID GLAND. TARGETS BONE. STIMULATES CALCIUM UPTAKE BY BONE, DECREASING BLOOD CALCIUM LEVEL.
WHAT ARE THE HORMONES OF THE PARAATHYROID GLAND?
PTH
WHAT IS PTH?
PARATHYROID HORMONE. PAYATHYROID GLAND, TARGETS BONE, INTESTINE, KIDNEYS. STIMULATES CALCIUM RELEASE FROM BONE, CALCIUM UPTAKE FROM GI TRACT, CALCIUM REABSORPTION IN KINEY, ALL INCREASING BLOOD CALCIUM LEVEL.
WHAT ARE THE HORMONES OF THE THYMUS?
THYMOSIN.
WHAT IS THYMOSIN?
THYMUS. TARGETS WHITE BLOOD CELLS, PRIMARILY T LYMPHOCYTES. STIMULATES REPRODUCTION OF T LYMPHOCYTES.
WHAT ARE THE HORMONES OF THE PANCREAS?
GLUCAGON
INSULIN
SOMATOSTATIN
WHAT ARE THE HORMONES OF THE ADRENAL MEDULLA?
EPINEPHINE
NOREPINEPHRINE
WHAT IS EPINEPHRINE?
ADRENAL MEDULLA. TARGETS MUSCLE, LIVER CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. STIMULATES FEATURES OF FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE TO STRESS.
WHAT IS NOREPINEPHRINE?
ADRENAL MEDULLA. TARGETS MUSCLE, LIVER, CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. STIMULATES VASOCONSTRICTION.
WHAT ARE THE HORMONES OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX?
GLUCOCORTICOIDS
CORTISOL
MINERALOCORTICOIDS
ALDOSTERONE
ANDROGENIC HORMONES
ESTROGEN
PROGESTERONE
TESTOSTERONE
WHAT ARE GLUCOCORTICOIDS AND CORTISOL?
ADRENAL CORTEX. TARGETS MOST CELLS, PARTICULARLY WBC. STIMULATES GLUCAGON LIKE EFFECTS, ACTS AS INTI-INFLAMMATORY AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENT.
WHAT ARE MINERALOCORTICOIDS AND ALDOSTERONE?
ADRENAL CORTEX. TARGETS KIDNEYS AND BLOOD. CONTRIBUTES TO SALT AND FLUID BALANCE BY STIMULATING KIDNEYS TO INCREASES POTASSIUM EXCRETION AND DECREASE SODIUM EXCRETION, INCREASING BLOOD VOLUME.
WHAT IS THE HORMONE OF THE PINEAL GLAND?
MELATONIN
WHAT IS MELATONIN?
PINEAL GLAND. TARGET AND ACTION UNKNOWN. RELEASES MELATONIN IN RESPONSE TO LIGHT, MAY HELP DETERMINE DAILY, LUNAR AND REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES, MAY AFFECT MOOD.
WHAT DOES THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND RESPOND TO?
NERVE IMPULSES FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS.
WHAT DOES THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND RESPOND TO?
HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES THAT TRAVEL DOWN THE STALK THAT CONNECTS THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY AND HYPOTHALAMUS.
WHAT IS DIABETES INSIPIDUS?
EXCESSIVE URINE PRODUCTION CAUSED BY INADEQUATE PRODUCTION OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE.
WHERE IS THE THYROID GLAND LOCATED?
IN THE NECK ANTERIOR TO AND JUST BELOW THE CARTILAGE OF THE LARYNX.
WHAT IS THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS?
A MICROSCOPIC CLUSTER OF ENDOCRINE TISSUE FOUND WITHIN THE PANCREAS.
WHAT ARE THE 3 MOST IMPORTANT TYPES OF ENDOCRINE CELLS WITHIN THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS?
ALPHA
BETA
DELTA
WHAT ARE THE ALPHA CELLS?
APPROX. 25% OF THE ISLET TISSUE IS MADE UP OF ALPHA CELLS. PRODUCE GLUCAGON. INCREASE PRODUCTION WHEN BGL IS DOWN.
WHAT IS GLYCOGENOLYSIS?
THE BREAKDOWN OF GLYCOGEN TO GLUCOSE, PRIMARILY BY LIVER CELLS.
WHAT IS GLUCONEOGENISIS?
GLUCAGON STIMULATES THE LIVER TO CONVERT PROTEIN AND FAT TO FORM GLUCOSE.
WHAT IS THE ACINI?
THE EXOCRINE TISSUES INSIDE THE PANCREAS. SECRETE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES ESSENTIAL TO DIGESTION OF FATS AND PROTEINS INTO A DUCT THAT EMPTIES INTO THE SMALL INTESTINE
WHAT ARE THE BETA CELLS?
MAKE UP ABOUT 60% OF THE ISLET TISSUE. PRODUCE INSULINE. INSULINE IS THE ANTAGONIST OF GLUCAGON.
WHAT ARE THE DELTA CELLS?
COMPRISE ABOUT 10% OF THE ISLET TISSUE. PRODUCE SOMATOSTATIN.
WHAT IS SOMATOSTATIN?
THIS HORMONE ACTS WITHIN THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS TO INHIBIT SECRETION OF GLUCAGON AND INSULIN. IT ALSO RETARDS NUTRIENT ABSORPTION FROM THE INTESTINES.
WHAT IS CORTISOL?
MOST IMPORTANT GLUCOCORTICOID. ACCOUNTS FOR MORE THAN 95% ADRENOCORTICAL PRODUCTION. INCREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL BY PROMOTING GLUCONEOGENISIS AND DECREASING GLUCOSE UTILIZATION AS AN ENERGY SOURCE. ALSO INHIBITS INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE. ACTH WHICH PROMOTES RELEASE IS SECRETED IN RESPONSE TO STRESS, TRAUMA OR SERIOUS INFECTION.
WHAT IS ANH?
ATRIAL NATRIURETIC HORMONE. SECRETED BY CERTAIN ATRIAL CELLS IN RESPONSE TO INCREASED STRETCHING OF THE ATRIAL WALLS DUE TO ABNORMALLY HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE OR VOLUME. IT INHIBITS SECRETION OF ALDOSTERONE. ANTAGONIST TO ADH.
WHAT IS hCG?
HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. SECRETED THROUGHOUT GESTATION.
WHAT IS RENIN?
AN ENZYME RELEASED BY CERTAIN KIDNEY CELLS. AS ON ANGIOTENSINOGEN, CONVERTING IT ANGIOTENSIN I.
WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITIS?
DISORDER OF INADEQUATE INSULIN ACTIVITY, DUE EITHER TO INADEQUATE PRODUCTION OF INSULIN OR TO DECREASED RESPONSIVENESS OF BODY CELLS TO INSULIN.
WHAT IS ANABOLISM?
THE CONSTRUCTIVE OR BUILING UP PHASE OF METABOLISM
WHAT IS CATABOLISM?
THE DESTRUCTIVE OR BREAKING DOWN PHASE OF METABOLISM.
WHAT ARE KETONE BODIES?
COMPOUNDS PRODUCED DURING THE CATABOLISM OF FATTY ACIDS, INCLUDING ACETOACETIC ACID, B-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID, AND ACETONE.
WHAT IS KETOSIS?
THE PRESENCE OF SIGNIFICANT QUANTITIES OF KETONE BODIES IN THE BLOOD.
WHAT IS HYPOGLYCEMIA?
DEFICIENCY OF BLOOD GLUCOSE. SOMETIMES CALLED INSULIN SHOCK.
WHAT IS HYPERGLYCEMIA?
EXCESSIVE BLOOD GLUCOSE.
WHAT IS OSMOTIC DIURESIS?
GREATLY INCREASED URINATION AND DEHYDRATION THAT RESULTS WHEN HIGH LEVELS OF GLUCOSE CANNOT BE REABSORBED INTO THE BLOOD FROM THE KIDNEY TUBULES AND THE OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF THE GLUCOSE IN THE TUBULES ALSO PREVENTS WATER REABSORPTION.
WHAT IS DIURESIS?
FORMATION AND SECRETION OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF URINE.
WHAT IS GLYCOSURIA?
GLUCOSE IN URINE, WHICH OCCURS WHEN BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS EXCEED THE KIDNEY'S ABILITY TO REABSORB GLUCOSE.
AT WHAT LEVEL OF mg/dL IS GLUCOSE LOST IN THE URINE?
OVER 180 mg/dL.
WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPLE TISSUES INVOLVED IN HOMEOSTASIS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE?
THE ALPHA AND BETA TISSUES OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS AND THE LIVER.
WHAT ARE THE 3 Ps SEEN IN IDDM?
POLYDIPSIA
POLYURIA
POLYPHAGIA
WHAT IS HHNK?
HYPERGLYCEMIC HYPEROSMOLAR NONKETOTIC ACIDOSIS. (COMA). COMPLICATION OF TYPE II DIABETES DUE TO INADEQUATE INSULIN ACTIVITY. MARKED BY HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE, MARKED DEHYDRATION, AND DECREASED MENTAL FUNCTION. OFTEN MISTAKEN FOR KETOACIDOSIS.
WHAT IS DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS?
COMPLICATION OF TYPE I DIABETES DUE TO DECREASED INSULIN INTAKE. MARKED BY HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE, METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, AND, IN ADVANCED STAGES, COMA. KETOACIDOSIS IS OFTEN CALLED DIABETIC COMA.
WHAT IS HYPERTHYROIDISM?
EXCESSIVE SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES RESULTING IN INCREASED METABOLIC RATE.
WHAT IS THYROTOXICOSIS?
CONDITION THAT REFLECTS PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO EXCESS THYROID HORMONES WITH RESULTANT CHANGES IN BODY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.
WHAT IS HYPOTHYROIDISM?
INADEQUATE SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES RESULTING IN A DECREASED METABOLIC RATE.
WHAT IS MYXEDEMA?
CONDITION THAT REFLECTS LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO INADEQUATE LEVELS OF THYROID HORMONES WITH RESULTANT CHANGES IN BODY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.
WHAT IS GRAVES DISEASE?
ENDOCRINE DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY EXCESS THYROID HORMONES RESULTING IN BODY CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED METABOLISM; PRIMARY CAUSE OF THYROTOXICOSIS.
WHAT IS A HYPOGLYCEMIC SEIZURE?
SEIZURE THAT OCCURS WHEN BRAIN CELLS ARE NOT FUNCTIONING NORMALLY DUE TO LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE.
WHAT IS A MYXEDEMA COMA?
LIFE THREATENING CONDITION ASSOCIATED WITH ADVANCED MYXEDEMA, WITH PROFOUND HYPOTHERMIA, BRADYCARDIA, AND ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE.
WHAT IS CUSHINGS SYNDROME?
ADRENAL DISORDER. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITION RESULTING FROM EXCESS ADRENOCORTICAL HORMONES. SYMPTOMS MAY INCLUDE CHANGED BODY HABITUS, HYPERTENSION, VULNERABILITY TO INFECTION.
WHAT IS ADDISONS DISEASE?
ADRENAL DISORDER. ENDOCRINE DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY ADRENOCORTICAL INSUFFICIENCY. SYMPTOMS MAY INCLUDE WEAKNESS, FATIGUE, WEIGHT LOSS, HYPERPIGMENTATION OF AND MUCUS MEMBRANES.
WHAT IS AN ADDISONIAN CRISIS?
FORM OF SHOCK ASSOCIATED WITH ADRENOCORTICAL INSUFFICIENCY AND CHARACTERIZED BY PROFOUND HYPOTENSION AND ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE.