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74 Cards in this Set

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Describe endocrine glands
effects tend to be widespread
they may target many organs
secretes chemicals into the blood
What are the 8 major endocrine glands
Hypothalamus
Pituitary
thyroid
Parathyroid
Thymus
Pancreas
Adrenals
Gonads
Pineal
What is the connection whith the CNS and the endocrine system calles
Hypothalmus
what does the posterior pituitary respond to
nerve impulses from the hypothalamus
what does the anterior pituitary respond to
Hypothalamic hormones
What is Diabetes insipidus
is caused by inadequate ADH from the posterior pituitary
marked by increased urine output up to 20 liters per day
where is oxitocin produced
posterior pituitary
how can we effect the release of Oxytocin
giving IV fluid bolus will cause decreased release of ADH and in turn cause decreased release of Oxitocin which may slow labor
In the Islets of lagenhorn in the pancreas what do alpha cells produce
Glucagon
What does Glucagon do
stimulates the break down of glycogen in the liver
also stimulates the breakdown of body proteins and fats with subsequent conversonin to glucose
In the Islets of lagenhor in the pancreas what do the beta cells produce
Insulin
what does Insulin do
It is the antagonist of glucagon it lowers blood glucose by increasing its uptake by body cells, it also promotes storage of glycogen, protein and fat
how fast does the liver remove circulating insulin and why do we care
it removes it within 10-15min
so there must be a constant supply if not glucose levels will run very high
what do delta cells produse
Somatostatin which acts within the islets of legerhorn
to inhibit the secretion fo glucagon and insulin
Where are the adrenal glands located and what do they do
on the superior surface of the kidneys, the adrenal medulla secretes epi and the adrenal cortex secretes cortisol
what does cortisol do
it increases blood glucose level by promoting gluconeogenesis and decreasing glucose utilization as an energy source
what is known as the hormone of pregnance
progensterone
what is detected in at home pregnacy tests
human chorionic gonadotropin secreted by the plecenta
what is the most common endocrin emergency
diabetes mellitus
what does insipidus mean
neutral
what does mellitus mean
sweet
what are the two requirments for insulin effectivness
there must be sufficient insulin in the blood
It must be able to bind to body cells
what are ketone bodies
compounds produced during the catabolism of fatty acids
what is osmotic diuresis
this is th increased urination and dehydration taht results when glucose cannot be reabsorbed into the blood from the kidney tubules and this osmosis prevents water absorption
what is glycosuria
glucose in urine
Describe type 1 diabetes
very low production of insulin sometimes none, also called juvenile onset or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
describe type 2 diabetes
moderate decline of insulin production accompanied bya markedly deficient response to insulin called non insulin dependent diabetes
what is ketoacidosis
this is when the body goes into acidosis due to metabolizing fats because of a lack of insulin
what is hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma
inadequate insulin activity maked by high blood glucose and dehydration and decreased mental funcion common in Type 2 diabetes NO ACIDOSIS
Diabetic patients with kidney failure may be predisposed to what
Hypoglycemia because of lack of renal gluconeogenesis
what is graves disease
endocrine disorder characterized by excess thyroid hormonen
signs of graves disease
exophthalmos
diffuse goiter
new onset afib
tachycardia and weight loss
what is thyrotoxic crisis
toxic condition characterized by hyperthermia and tachycardia and rapid metabolisme also known as a thyroid storm
what does severe hypothyroidism create
Myxedema a thickening of connective tissue including the heart
what are the early signs of hyperthyroidism
low metabolic state and poor organ function and poor response to exercise or infection
what are the classic signs of myxedema
unemotional puffy face
thinned hair and enlarged tongue, pale cool skin and feels like dough
Myxedema management
ABC .. and this patient will have a low tempreture but active rewarming is contraindicated due to cardiac compormisee
what is cushings syndrome caused by
excessive adrenocortical activity
what is addisons disease caused by
decreased adrenocortical activity
describe signs and symptoms of chushings syndrome
moon face
buffalo hump
thin skin
easy brusing and delayed healng, mood swings and impaired memory
what are many adrenal insufficiencies caused by
Prednisone
which can completely suppress normal adrenal function
what is Addisonian crisis
form of shock associated with adrenocortical insufficienccy and characterized by profound hypotension and electrolyte imbalances
What is the most common endocrine disorder
diabetes mellitus
what are the predisposing factors that have been identified for diabetes
heredity, viral infection, autoimmune antibodies and obesity
what is the key factor in the predisposition for graves disease
heredity
although antibodies are known to trigger the excess production of thyroid hormone
what is the common trigger factpr for thyrotoxicosis
or thyroid storm
sever physiological stress
approximately half of all adrenal gland disorders are due to what
autoimmune disorders or physiological stress
what do hormones regulate
metabolic activity
growth and development a
and chemical reactions to keep a balance in the body
when blood glucose levels rise above 180 mg/dl what is the result
polyuria, because the kidneys can no longer reabsorbe the glucose and it spills into the uring changing the osmotic pressure and water follows glucose
what do the beta cells in the pancreas produce
insulin
of all diabetic cases what % is type 2
90%
what do the alpha cells in the pancreas release
Glucagon
Describe hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma
Ketosis is absent because of the presence of insulin inhibits lipolysis, the hyperosmolarity causis dehydreation
what is Graves disease
hyperthyroidism
what is Myxedema
hypothyroidism
and a geneeralized decrease in metabolism
Signs and symptoms of Myxedema
hoarse voice, slow speech , facial bloating, weakness, cold intolerance, lethargy and fatigue, depresion
what is Cushings syndrome
Hyperadrenalism
what causes Cushings syndrome
long term glucocorticoid therapy or by abnormalities of the adrenal glands
signs and symptoms of cushings syndrome
weight gain in the trunk of the body, moon faced, buffalo hump, thin skin and they bruise easily, delayed healing
What is Addisons disease
adrenal insufficiency
what causes addisons disease
autoimmune disorder causing atrophy of the adrenal glands
describe addisonian crisis
it is a life threatening medical emergency characterized by profound hypotension and shock which can be fatal
what can a addisonian crisis be caused by
people with addisons disease who have been exposed to stress such as acute infection , trauma, dehydration, or emotional duress
when blood glucose levels fall what do the alpha cells in the pancreas do
secrete glucagon
where is oxytocin released from
posterior pituitary gland
what are the pancratic hormones
insulin
pancreatic polypeptide
glucagon
somatostatin
where is cortisol produced
the adrenal cortex
what hormones are secreted by the adrenal glands
epinephrine
aldosterone
cortisol
what is the primary function of aldosterone
regulate sodium and potassium
is bradycardia a symptom of thyrotoxic crisis
NO
what are the symptoms of Myxedema coma
hypothermia
decreased mental status
low amplitude brady
co2 retention
what is addisons disease
it is a adrenal insufficiency
the break down of a molecule
catabolism
to build up a molecule
anabolism