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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
face plethoric and heart murmur?
carcinoid syndrome
what is neuroblastoma?
most common adrenal tumor of the medulla in kids
why does a prolactinoma cause amenorrhea?
prolactin inhibits GnRH, which inhibits ovulation
CAH causing hypertension?
17-beta-hydroxylase deficiency
11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency
female but no maturation?
17-beta-hydroxylase deficiency
female pseudohermaphroditism?
21-beta-hydroxylase deficiency
CAH causing hypotension?
21-beta-hydroxylase deficiency
CAH with increased sex steroids?
21 and 11- beta-hydroxylase deficiency
increases urinary cAMP?
PTH
where in the nephron does PTH act to absorb calcium?
DCT
what stimulates kidney 1-alpha-hydroxylase?
PTH to make 1,25-VitD
where does VitD receive its first hydroxylation?
liver
where does Vit D2 come from?
plants
what causes production of active VitD?
low calcium
low phosphorus
high PTH
alkphos is elevated in...
hyperparathyroid
Paget's
what condition causes low calcium and high phosphate?
renal insufficiency
what does calcitonin do?
opposes the actions of PTH
(decreases bone resorption of Ca)
what stimualtes follicular cells in Graves' disease?
TSI (thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin)
brain and RBC take up glucose via..
GLUT-1
amenorrhea?
prolactinoma
Cushing's
what does low-dose dex do in an ACTH producing tumor?
nothing, cortisol is still high.
what produces ectopic ACTH?
small cell lung cancer
how do you treat hyperaldo?
spironolactone
what is Conn's syndrome?
primary hyperaldo
what acid base disturbance in Conn's syndrome?
metabolic alkalosis
(aldo stimulates H secretion)
what is Addison's disease?
primary adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal atrophy
involves all 3 cortical divisions
what is secondary adrenal insufficiency?
low pituitary ACTH
no hyperpigmentation
pheochromocytoma is associated with...
NF
MEN II and III
how does MEN I present?
kidney stones
stomach ulcers
how is MEN III different from Sipple syndrome?
mucosal neuromas
pretibial myxedema?
Graves'
facial and periorbial myxedema?
hypothryoid
what is Reidels' thyroiditis?
hypothyroid from fibrous tissue in the thyroid
autoimmune hyPERthyroid?
autoimmune hyPOthyroid?
Graves'
Hashimoto
what's subacute (deQuervain's) thyroidits?
post-flulike hyPOthyroid
ESR, jaw pain
very tender
lymphocytic infiltrate?
Hashimoto
antibodies in Hashimoto?
antimicrosomal
antithyroglobulin
what conditions cause an increase in GH?
stress
exercise
hypoglycemia
what causes secondary hyperparathryoidism?
chronic renal disease (low calcium)
bone condition associated with primary hyperpara?
secondary hyperpara?
osteitis fibrosa cystica
renal osteodystrophy
what is pseudohypopara?
how does it present?
kidney unresponsive to PTH
hypocalcemia, short stature, shorted 4th and 5th digits
what is milk alkali syndrome?
calcium ingestion (hypercalcemia)
HLA association of Type I diabetics?
HLA DR3/4
what are the classic symptoms of a diabetic?
(more common in Type I)
thirst
weight loss
polyuria
polydypsia
where do the ketones come from in DKA?
excess fat breakdown
causes of central DI?
pituitary tumor
trauma, surgery
histiocytosis X
causes of nephrogenic DI?
hereditary
secondary to hypercalcemia
lithium or demeclocycline
sympotoms of DI?
how do you diagnose?
intensive thirst and polyuria
water deprivation tests (osmolality doesn't increase)
indomethacin is used for...
acute gout over colchicine
close the ductus
nephrogenic DI
causes of SIADH?
small cell lung cancer
pulmonary disease
cyclophosphamide
use octreotide to treat
GH excess
carcinoid syndrome
how do you treat central DI?
nephrogenic DI?
desmospressin
hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride
where do gastrin-secreting tumors occur?
pancreas or duodenum
HLA in Hashimotos?
DR4 adn B5
why does Addison's present with hypotension?
hyponatremic volume contraction
where do pubic and axillary hair come from in women?
adrenal androgens
what does someone with 17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency look like?
female but no maturation
clinical presentations of 21-beta hydroxylase deficiency?
female pseudohermaphroditism
hypovolemic shock in the newborn