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39 Cards in this Set

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hormone
chemical messenger carried by blood from gland to target
paracrine agnet
chem messenger that isn't carried by blood
up-regualtion
increased in receptor number due to low hormone concentration

increase reactivity
down-regualtion
decrease in receptor number due to over-exposure to hormone

decrease reactivity
permissiveness
hormone A must be present for hormone B to be effective
physiological effects
typical effects of a hormone caused by normal hormone levels
pharmacological effects
new effects of a hormone acused by super-high levels
amine class hormones
thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3)

epinephrine

dopamine
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
set metabolic rate of all tissues

hydrophobic
epinephrine
prepare body for fight-or-flight resopnse to unpleasant situation

hydrophilic
dopamine
neurotransmitter released by hypothalamus

inhibits release of prolactin from anterior pituitary

hydrophilic
peptides class hormones
all hydrophilic

e.g. insulin, growth hormone
steroids class hormones
all from cholesterol so all hydrophobic

aldosterone
cortisol
androgens
testosterone
estrogen and progesterone
aldosterone
(adrenal cortex)

regulate excretion of Na and K ions in kidneys; also neurocorticoid
cortisol
(adrenal cortex)

released during periods of stress; main glucocorticoid secreted
androgens
(adrenal cortex)

grp of hormones w/ testosterone-like effects

in men and women
testosterone
(testes)

involved in reproduction in males
estrogen and progesterone
(ovaries and placenta)

involved in reproduction in females
oxytocin
relaesed by posterior pituitary

affects breasts and uterus; cause contraction of smooth muscle during lactation and labor
vasporessin (antidiuretic hormone)
secreted by posterior pituitary

affects kidneys, increase amt of water retained
hormones secreted by posterior pituitary
oxytocin
vasopressin
hormones secreted by anterior pituitary
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
lutenizing hormone (LH)
growth hormone (GH)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
prolactin
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
affects gonads; cause secretion of estrogen and progesterone (or testosterone)
luteinizing hormone (LH)
affects gonads; same as FSH
gonadotropins
FSH and LH
growth hormone (GH)
affects liver; cause secretion of IFG-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
affects thyroid; cause secretion of T4 and T3
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
affects adrenal cortex; cause secretion of cortisol
prolactin
affects breasts; cause production of milk
tropic hormone
hormone that functions to cause secretion of another hormone
hypothalamic hormones that travel portal vessles to anterior pituitary are:
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
growth hormone releaseing hormone (GHRH)
growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
dopamine
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
cause release of FSH AND LH (then estrogen/progesterone or testosterone)
growth hormone releaseing hormone (GHRH)
cause release of GH (then IFG-1)
dopamine
inhibits prolactin release
prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
cause release of prolactin (then milk)
corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
cause release of ACTH (then release of cortisol)
thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
cause release of TSH (then T4 and T3)
growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
inhibits release of GH
tropic hormone
cause secretion of another hormone