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111 Cards in this Set

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what is the normal TOTAL calcium for most species
10 some unit
where does Ca2+ work
with the Na/K/ATP pump by inhibiting Na+
release Ach
contraction of muscle
what will be one of the first CS of hypocalcemia in a cow?
bloat, the rumen can't contract
why do animasl with Ca2+ def. have issues with glucose?
Ca is needed for NT releaes low Ca2+ can result in a coma
Ca2+ is needed for release of glucose
what other weird ion? do you need to release PTH from PT cells?
what is the active form of vit D
1,25 di-OH D3
what does calcitonin do?
Stimulus for release: high ECF [Ca++
Promotes deposition of Ca into bone
Promotes loss of Ca into urine
Net effect: to reduce [Ca++]]
which type of cows get parturient paresis?
dairy cattle
beef cattle and sheep- prepartum
when does paturient paresis usually occur
within 48 hours of calving
why does milk fever happen
Caused by onset of heavy milk production that depletes serum Ca++so rapidly that hormonal controls can’t keep up
what does milk fever result in
flaccid paralysis
at what age does milk fever occur in
Tends to occur in older cows ( >3 yrs) –as animals age, the bone and gut are less responsive to PTH and Vitamin D
which breeds are over representing, its not dairy? idk
channel breeds
how much calcium does the production of milk pull from the ECF?
Onset of lactation pulls approximately ten times the ECF calcium content into the milk within several hours
(10 L colostrum) X (2.3 g Ca/L) = 23 g Ca
plasma Ca pool = 2.5 g Ca
↓Ca 2+ -> ↑PTH -> ↑ 1,25 D3 ->
bone resorption(takes 48hr)
intestinal absorption (takes 24hr)
what does milk fever result from
Milk fever results from a failure of the hormone systems to keep up with calcium loss into colostrumand milk
what happens once milk fever CS start?
Once clinical signs start, the cow’s condition will rapidly become worse
Untreated cases of milk fever result in death!
stage 1 MF basic CS
standing, irritable, tremors.
Stage 1 milk fever PE
Excitable, nervous, weak
Cows will shift weight from side to side
Tachycardia; mild HYPERthermia
Feces often firm (long transit time)
Stage 1 rapidly progresses to stage 2 (1 hour)
what might some subclinical hypocalcemic cows do
stick their tongue out
stage II milk fever basic CS
recumbent and depressed
poor cardiac function
Stage II milk fever PE observation
•Head tucked to side
•S-shaped curvature of neck 9their mm are very weak)
•Recumbencyis due to flaccid paralysis
•Muscle fasciculations
Stage II milk fever PE hands on
Tachycardia, but usually < 90 bpm
•Decreased intensity of heart sounds
Poor perfusion:
Subnormal rectal temperature (<100ºF)
Cold extremities: ears and distal feet
Mild bloat
Constipation; inability to urinate
Pupillarylight reflex may be depressed
milk fever stage 3 PE
Lateral recumbency
Progressive loss of consciousness
Severe bloat
Heart sounds may be inaudible
Tachycardia, usually > 100 bpm
what is soon to follow at stage III milk fever
Death soon follows -respiratory / cardiac arrest
or aspiration of rumen contents
what are complications associated with milk fever
•Aspiration pneumonia
•Muscular injury
•Skeletal injuries
•Peripheral nerve injuries
what is the CP range for hypocalcemia
Hypocalcemia= <7.5 mg/dl
•Reference range: 9.7-12.4 mg/dl
what level is the Ca2+ level at for stage 1 milk fever?
5.5-7.5 mg/dl
what level is the Ca2+ level at for stage 2 milk fever?
3.5-6.5 mg/dl
what level is the Ca2+ level at for stage 3 milk fever?
<2.0 mg/dl
when do you collect blood to check for Ca2+ levels
Collect blood before treatment, that way you will have a baseline
if the cow does not respond to treatment
how can you treat milk fever?
Calcium borogluconate 23% solution IV / SC
Oral calcium chloride / propionate gels
how much IV calcium would you give?
1 g. Ca2+/ 45 Kg body wt. (100lbs)
most 500 mL prep contain 8-12 g of calcium

so 1 bottle for 800-1200 lbs
what do you have to remember about the heart and calcium?
Calcium is directly cardiotoxic!!
Administer slowly (10-20 minutes)
Auscult heart: arrhythmia/bradycardia
how much calcium is in a tube of oral calcium gel
25-100 g. of calcium
what do you have to absolutely know about oral calcium gel and side effects
its an irritant. if you give this too fast or if they aspirate then it will cause erosions in trachea, bronchi and could liquefy the lungs
does spontaneous recovery occur with milk fever
no, this is an emergency- start treating!
what can you treat a milk fever stage 1 cow with
Oral calcium gels
Subcutaneous calcium gluconate
what can you treat milk fever stage 2 cow with
Intravenous calcium salts
how do you know you have treated milk fever successfully?
Increased intensity of heart; decreased heart rate
Muscle fasciculations
Improved responsiveness
Standing before you leave farm
*Shiver, Sh*t, Shuffle to their feet!*
what are some ways you can provide nursing care to prevent complications of milk fever
Good footing
Of paramount importance!!!!
Keep cows sternal
Don’t force them to get up too soon
Roll from side to side if recovery is prolonged
Provide fresh water
what is the relapse level of milk fever?
25-30% relapse within 24-48 hours
Relapses more common in older cows
what is the cause of milk fever relapse?
deficient in Mg2+, K+, and or PO4
how can you prevent MF relapses
Subcutaneous Calcium
Given at initial IV treatment
Do NOT use products containing dextrose
what kind of diet can you give to px milk fever ?
Feed a diet low in calcium during the last 3-4 weeks prior to calving
why would you give a low Ca2+ diet to px milk fever?
you want the calcium from the bones to be put into the blood stream to make it available during parturition
what can you add to the diet to px milk fever
anionic salts 2-3 wks prior to calving. To make the blood more acidic
how do anionic salts mobilize Ca2+ into the blood stream
Calcium stores in the body are mobilized under acidic conditions!
what does alkaline blood pH promote
Alkaline pH promotes hypocalcemia
Conformational structure of Parathyroid Hormone receptor is changed:
lock-and-key interaction between PTH and receptor is disrupted
what is conversion of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol dihydroxyvitamin D dependent on
parathyroid hormone
summary of how to px milk fever
acidification through diet
↑ urinary excretion of Ca2+
↑ resorption of Ca2+ from bone

osteoclasts exchange Ca2+ for H+
↑ vit D formation
Dietary Cation-Anion Difference what does it do
Estimates whether a diet has the potential to be acidogenic or alkalogenic
Goal is to create diet which is more negatively charged (higher in anions)
when you monitor urinary pH to determine acidification of diet what would > 8.0 indicate
High incidence of milk fever, approaching upper limit of the kidneys to regulate pH
when you monitor urinary pH to determine acidification of diet what would 7.0- 7.99 indicate
High incidence of hypocalcemia, milk fever a potential problem
when you monitor urinary pH to determine acidification of diet what would 6.51-6.99 indicate
Borderline range, hypocalcemia still a potential problem
when you monitor urinary pH to determine acidification of diet what would 5.50-5.99 indicate?
optimum level for jerseys
when you monitor urinary pH to determine acidification of diet what would < 5.50 indicate
Excessive acidification, approaching lower limit of the kidneys to regulate pH
what is Mg2+ need for synthesis of?
without PTH, what is the fate of Ca2+
it is doomed
PO42- primary functions
Energy exchange through ATP
•Skeletal growth/maintenance
•Reproductive function
•RBC integrity
what is PHT absorption stimulated by
Vitamin D3
what does PTH cause of loss of in urine and saliva
downer cow caused by
Severe, acute hypophosphatemia
postparturient hemoglobinuria and hypophosphatemia
hemolyzing cow- I dont get it
what does chronic hypophosphatemia cause
CS of mild to chronic deficiency of phophate
poor growth/ infertility
CS of severe, chronic deficiency of Phosphate
spontaneous fractures, rickets, pica
CS of postparturient hemoglobinuria
RBCs depleted of ATP, lyse. Rare.
normal phostphate levels
normal 4-8 mg/ dl
young ruminants 5-8.5 mg/dl
idk if we need to know this
Severe acute hypophosphatemia levels
<1 mg/dl
Chronic hypophosphatemia:
2-3.5 mg/dl
postparturient hemoglobinuria levels
< 2mg/dl
what happens if your cow gets bradycardic when giving calcium for milk fever
stop giving the calcium
what do steriods do to milk production
shut it down
what is the major intracellular cation?
what is K+ critical for?
maintenance of resting membrane potential
how does an animal increase K+
how does an animal lose potassium
what have all hypokalemic cows have a history of
moderate to severe ketosis
cows that had delivered a calf less than 30 days before dz
all cows had been treated with isoflupredone acetate (predef)
CS of hypokalemia
Muscle fasciculations
Skeletal muscle weakness
Profound muscle flaccidity
Neck muscles affected
Head resting against flank
Cardiac arrhythmias
Atrial fibrillation
Ventricular tachycardia
CP of hypokalemia
Potassium < 2.5 mEq/L
Mild elevations in creatine phosphokinase activity
what are the two possible mechanisms of pathophysiology-hypokalemia
imbalance of external potassium regulation
imbalance of intracellular potassium homeostasis
CS of external K+ hypokalemia
anorexia (DA, Mastitis, ketosis)
what does glucocorticoid administration do to a cow with external hypokalemia
minerealcorticoid effect
predef> dexamethasone
how does alkalosis occur within the cell?
Alkalosis results in cellular uptake of potassium in exchange for hydrogen ions
what are ketosis treatments
insulin and gluocose
insulin drives gluocose into the cell
what is glucose accompanied by when going into the cell
cellular uptake of glucose is accompanied by intracellular movement of potassium
how do you treat hypokalemia?
IV and oral K+
IV is not effective alone
IV K+ (5% KCl soln)
isotonic KCl: 11.5 grams KCl/L sterile water
what is the maximum administration rate of IV potassium
0.5 mEq/kg/hour
how can you give oral KCl
capsules, mix it in water, stomach tube, morton lite salt, rumen transfaunation KCl, rumen microbes
what do you need to do a few weeks before a cow calves?
change her diet every few weeks- stat with hay, some concentrate, then more concentrate
where are VFA's absorbed?
absorbed in the portal circulatoin and sent to the liver
what is used for gluconeogenesis that comes from the diet
which body systems require glucose to function
brain, RBC, kidney, mammary gland (needs to convert gluc to lactose), placenta/fetus
what do cells have to have to to utilize ketones
does the kidney have mitochondria?
very little
how much of the blood glucose goes to the mammary gland?
60-85% of BG goes to the mammary gland for milk production
how can pregnancy cause ketosis?
in the 3rd trimester the fetus grows a lot and if there are multiple babies this can cause complications
What happens when energy demands exceed the supply of glucose?
When energy demand exceeds supply,
[insulin] decreases,
[glucagon] increases,
and the animal mobilizes its energy stores
What stores are available?
In liver and muscle. Polymer of glucose.
Muscle amino acids
Can be converted to glucose.
Can be converted to glucose.
Is there any other form of energy storage in the body?
In the body, 3 fatty acids are linked to one glycerol to form triglyceride (fat).
Abundant hydrocarbons for oxidation as fuel!
how does the body promote lipolysis
Promote lipolysisthrough stimulation
of Hormone Sensitive Lipase:
The fatty acids released are called…
Non-esterifiedFatty Acids (NEFA)
The liver cell (hepatocyte):
The control center for regulation of energy metabolism
how ruminants deal with short-term energy deficits
FA-> liver cells->ß-oxidation -> acetyl-CoA (2 carbons)-> krebs
will also need dietary proproionate to make glucose
what happens to a cow with long term term ketosis
there is insufficient proprionate
they can't eat enough to meed their energy demands
everything is mobilized
tons of Acetyl-CoA-> ketone formation
Our energy-deficient, high-producing ruminant
remainsdeprived of adequate dietary carbsfor several hours / few days, what happens?
Insufficientpropionatesupply from rumen,
glycogenstores eventually depleted,
and only a finite amount of muscleamino acidsandlactatecan be mobilized….
what does the cow do after it has mobilized amno acids and lactate
mobilize lg amounts of body fat
what are ketones
Short carbon-chain organic acids
Also called “ketoacids, ketone bodies
types of ketones
acetoacetate, (OH)butyrate, acetone)
what are ketones a result of
The result of incompleteoxidation of fatty acids
Why incomplete?
There is insufficient oxaloacetate(not enough carbohydrates) to allow acetyl CoAto enter the TCA cycle