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45 Cards in this Set

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Effect of increased ADH on urine volume.
decreases
Effect of increased ADH on blood osmoilality.
decreases
Effect of increased ADH on blood vessel constriction and blood.
Increases
Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus respond to this factor.
Blood osmolality
Effect of Oxytocin on smmoth muscle contraction in the uterus.
increases
Oxytocin increases stretching of the uterus. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
Regarding increased GH, what is its effect on amino acid uptake and protein synthesis by cells?
Increases
GH; Effect on the rate of lipid breakdown and blood glucose levels.
increases
Regarding GH secretion, what is the effect of GH-IH(somatostatin) from the hypothalamus?
decreases
What is a large precursor molecule that produces ACTH and others.
Proopiomelanocortin
These have the same effect as opiate drugs.
Beta endorphins
List 2 hormones that stimulate melanocytes in the skin to produce melanin.
MSH/ACTH
Small shere of cuboidal epithelium in the thyroid that is filled with thyroglobulin.
follicle
Scattered cells between follicles in the thyroid.
parafollicular cells
Product of parafollicular cells
calcitonin
large proteins that are synthesized in, and fill the lumen of thyroid follicles.
Thyroglobulins
Amino acid used in the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
Tyrosine
Actively absorbed into thyroid follicles, oxidized and bound to tyrosines.
Iodide
major thyroid hormone that interacts with target cells.
T3
T4- the major secretory product of the thyroid gland.
Transports most thyroid hormones, increases the half life of thyroid hormones.
Thyroid binding globulin
Effect of calcitonin on the breakdown of bone by osteoclasts.
decreases
Effect of calcitonin on blood calcium levels.
decreases
Effect of increased blood calcium levels on calcitonin secretion.
increased
Regarding increased PTH, effect on osteoclast activity on bone
increases
Effect on calcium reabsorption in the kidneys.
increases
PTH, effect on the formation of active vit D synthesis, which increases the rate of calcium and phosphate absorption in the intestine
increases
Effect of PTH on blood phosphate levels
decreases
Effect of low blood calcium levels on PTH secretion.
increases
Kidney stones, eroded bones, muscular weaknes and constipation.
Hyper PTH secretion.
Increased cell permeability to sodium ions, depolarization of the cell membrane.
Hypo PTH secretion.
Derived from neural crest cells, part of the sympathetic division of the ANS.
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal medullary hormone secreted in larger quantity
epinephrine
secreted by the zona glomerulosa, aldosterone
mineralcorticoid
secreted by the zona fasciculata, cortisol
Glucocorticoid
Androgen secreted by the zona reticularis, converted into testosterone.
Androstenedione
Regarding increased aldosterone, effect on potassium ion conc in the blood.
decreases
Effect on hydrogen ion concentration in the blood, regarding increased aldosterone.
decreases
Increased aldosterone, effect on blood pH.
increases
Location of CRH production
Hypothalamus
Two hormones that inhibit CRH secretion.
ACTH
cortisol
Hormone that inhibits ACTH production
cortisol
Effect of insulin on the uptake and use of glucose and amino acids in muscle cells, as well as on the uptake of glucose into the satiety center.
Increases
Effect of insulin on glycogen and fat synthesis.
increases
Examples of autocrine chemical signals include chemical mediators of inflammation, derived from the fatty acid 1_______, such as eicosanoids and modified phospholipids. The eicosanoids include 2._______, thromboxanes, prostacyclines andleukotrienes. prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are released from injured cells and are responsible for iniating some of the symptoms of 3.______. Prostaglandins directly stimulate 4>______, or cause dilation of blood vessels, which is associated with headache. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as 5.______, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis and reduce inflammation and pain. Modified phospholipids include 6._______. Paracrine chemical signals include substances that play a role in moderating the sensation of pain, including 7.______, enkephalins, and dynorphins, and several 8._____, such as epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin-2.
1. Arichadonic acid
2. Prostaglandins
3. Inflammation
4. Pain receptors
5. Aspirin
6. Platelet activating factor
7. Endorphins
8. Peptide growth factor
What is Simmond's disease?
It results from a tumor in the pituitary gland or from a lack of blood supply to the pituitary.