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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
insulin:
chemical nature, source gland and cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: pancreas
cells: beta cells
target: adipose cells, skeletal muscle, liver cells
major functions:lower blood sugar, increase lipogenesis and protein synthesis
glucagon:
chemical nature, source gland and cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: pancreas
cells: alpha cells
target: adipose cells, skeletal muscles
major functions: rise blood sugar, increase glycolysis and lipolysis
somatosin/GIH:
chemical nature, source gland and cells, target, major functions
chemical nature:polypeptide
source gland: pancreas, hypothalamus, stomach
cells: D cells, ventral nuclei (idk for stomach)
target: intestines, pancreas, pituitary
major functions:inhibits insulin and glucagon, inhibits gastric juices, inhibits GH and TSH
Thyroxine/ T4:
chemical nature, source gland and cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: one amino acid
source gland: thyroid
cells: follicular cells
target: all cells
major functions:increase basal metabolic rates, increase growth, digestion, and temperature
Triiodoth/ T3:
chemical nature, source gland and cells, target, major functions
chemical nature:
source gland: thyroid gland
cells: follicular cells
target: all cells
major functions: increase basal metabolic rates, increase growth, digestion, and temperature
PTH :chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: Parathyroid
source cells: cheif cells
target: osteoclast of bones, kidney,intestine
major functions:raise blood calcium, mg and lowers P, resorption, increase Vit. D,
Calcitonin (CT): chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature:polypeptide
source gland: thyroid
source cells: follicular cells
target: parafollicular cells
major functions:lower blood Ca and P, decrease resorption, decrease D3 to 1,25 D3, decrease reabsorption as well
1,25(OH)2 D3: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: steroid
source gland: kidney
source cells: renal cells
target: intestine, bone, kidney
major functions:provides Ca, P, Mg from the diet and there fore into blood and bone
CRH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: hypothalamus
source cells: ventral nuclei
target: anterior pituitary
major functions:stimulate ACTH, determine duration of pregnancy, keeps mothers immune system from attacking fetus.
GRH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: hypothalamus
source cells: ventral nuclei
target: anterior pituitary
major functions:stimulate GH, also affect sleep, food intake, and memory
TRH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: hypothalamus
source cells: paraventricular/ ventral nuclei
target: anterior pituitary gland
major functions: stimulate TSH and PRL, make one more awake and lose appetite
GnRH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature:polypeptide
source gland: hypothalamus
source cells:ventral nuclei
target: anterior pituitary gland
major functions: triggers sexual development, stimulates FSH and LH
LRH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature:polypeptide
source gland: hypothalamus
source cells:ventral nuclei
target: anterior pituitary
major functions: triggers sexual development, stimulates FSH and LH
FSH.RH.: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature:polypeptide
source gland: hypothalamus
source cells:ventral nuclei
target: anterior pituitary
major functions: triggers ovulation, stimulates FSH
PIH (dopamine): chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: amino acid
source gland: hypothalamus
source cells: ventral nuclei
target: anterior pituitary gland
major functions: inhibit PRL, inhibits milk production
PRH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: Hypothalamus
source cells: ventral nuclei
target: anterior pituitary gland
major functions:stimulate PRL, milk production induced
ADH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: hypothalamus (secreted by posterior pituitary)
source cells: produced by supraoptic cells, secreted by herrings bodies
target: kidney, sweat glands
major functions: water retention (making distal tubule permeable to water), inhibit urine formation
Oxytocin: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: hypothalamus (secreted by posterior pituitary)
source cells: produced by supraoptic cells, secreted by herrings bodies
target: breast, uterus
major functions: promotes movement of milk, stimulate uterine muscles,promotes productions of prostaglandins
ACTH
: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: anterior pituitary
source cells: corticotrophs
target: adrenal gland
major functions: stimulates adrenaline and cortisol.
LH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: glycoprotein
source gland: anterior pituitary
source cells: luteotrophs
target: ovaries, testes
major functions: stimulates testosterone production in men, stimulates ovulation in women
FSH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: glycoprotein
source gland: anterior pituitary gland
source cells: folliculotrophs
target: testis, ovaries
major functions: stimulates oogenesis in women, and spermatogenesis in men
TSH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: glycoprotein
source gland: anterior pituitary gland
source cells: thyrotrophs
target: thyroid
major functions: stimualte thyroid hormones
GH/STH: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: anterior pituitary gland
source cells:somatotrophs
target:bone, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue
major functions: increase bone and muscle growth,promotes protein synthesis, promotes RNA formation, increase secretion of liver's growth factors, decrease body fat, decrease carbohydrate utilization.
PRL: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: peptide
source gland: anterior pituitary gland
source cells: Lactotrophs
target: mammary glands
major functions: stimulates oxytocin, stimulate milk production (much more actions but this only on study guide and majority of sites
Cortisol: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: steroid
source gland: adrenal cortex
source cells: zona fasciculata
target: mostly all cells
major functions:increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis; suppress the immune system; and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism
Aldosterone: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: steroid
source gland: adrenal cortex
source cells: zona glomerulosa
target: kidney
major functions: increase Na+ resorption, increase blood pressure
Estrogen: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: steroid
source gland: ovaries, adrenal cortex
source cells: theca interna cells, zona reticularis
target: anterior pituitary, uterus
major functions: provide female characteristics, endometrial growth, regulates cycle, maturing of sperm
Testosterone: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: steroid
source gland: testes, ovaries, adrenal cortex
source cells: leydig cells, (couldn't find direct cells for the ovaries) zona reticularis
target: testes, ovaries, anterior pituitary glands
major functions: promote male characteristics, inhibits FSH, promote muscle and bone development, converted to oestradiol in women, and stimulates spermatogenesis in men
Prostaglandins: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions (dont have)
chemical nature: lipid
source gland:
source cells:
target:
major functions:cause inflammation of joints or related structures, regulate blood pressure, effect reproductive functions, influence kidney Na+ movement
Inhibin: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: ovaries, testis
source cells:granulosa cells, Sertoli cells
target: anterior pituitary gland, hypothalamus
major functions: inhibits FSH and GnRH
Progesterone: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: steroid
source gland: ovaries (placenta)
source cells: corpus luteum
target: uterus
major functions: regulates period, pregnancy, Maturation of reproductive organs
Thymosin: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: polypeptide
source gland: thymus
source cells: thymocytes
target: Lymphocytes and other cells of the immune response
major functions: Development of the T lymphocytes; coordinate and regulate immune response
Serotonin: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions(dont have)
chemical nature: monamine
source gland: pineal gland
source cells: pinealocytes
target: pancreas, local
major functions: inhibit insulin and IGF, activate bone absorption and resorption
Melatonin: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions (dont have)
chemical nature: monoamine
source gland: pineal gland
source cells: pinealocytes
target:
major functions:makes someone sleepy
Epinephrine: chemical nature, source gland, source cells, target, major functions
chemical nature: monoamine
source gland: adrenal medulla
source cells: chromaffin cells
target: Most cells, blood vessels, liver, heart
major functions: Increase cardiac activity, blood pressure, glycogen breakdown, blood glucose levels