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63 Cards in this Set

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What are the differences between the Endocrine System and the Nervous System
Endocrine: long term/ metablolic activity, acts slower, released into blood
Nervous: short term, acts quickly, confined to snynapse
Amino Acid Derivatives
- Throid hormone
- Binds to nucleus and mitochondria
- Direct acting
Peptide Derivatives
- chains of amino acids
- LH, FSH, ACTH, PRL, GH, TSH, MSH,ADH, Oxytocin
- Indirect acting
Lipid Derivatives
- Direct acting
- Steroids/ sex hormones: testosterone, estrogen
- Eicosanoids: prostaglandin
Indirect Acting Hormone:
Activation of Adenylate Cyclase
1. G protien acivated
2. Adenylate cyclase activated
3. cAMP acts as 2nd messenger
4. Kinase activated
>> opens ion channels
>> activates more enzymes
Indirect Acting Hormone:
Inhibition of Adenylate Cyclase
1. G protien acivated
2. PDE activated
3. cAMP breaks down
4. cAMP reduce: enzyme inhibition
Indirect Acting Hormone:
Ca2+ Levels
Activation of PLC
1. Release IP3
- causes Ca2+ ^ when released from ER
2. DAG > protien Kinase C
- IP3 ^ Ca2=
- ion channels in cm open bringing Ca2+ into EFC
3. Increase Ca2+ and w/ Calmodilin activated enzymes
Direct Acting Hormones:
Steroid Hormone
1. Diffuse through membrane
2. bind to hormone receptor
3. bind hormone to DNA
4. Activate Gene
5. Transcription and production of mRNA
6. Translation and protien synthesis
7. Target Cell response
Direct Acting Hormones:
Thyroid Hormone
1. Diffuse through membrane
2. bind to hormone receptor at mitochondria and nucleus
3. bind hormone to DNA
4. Activate Gene
5. Transcription and production of mRNA
6. Translation and protien synthesis
7. Target Cell response
3 Ways Hormones are Released
1. Endocrine Reflex
2. Neuroendocrine Relfex
3. Humoral Stimuli
3 Ways Hormones are Released
1. Endocrine Reflex
2. Neuroendocrine Reflex
3. Humoral Stimuli
Endocrine Reflex
- Hypothalamus secretes RH
- Ant. Pit. secretes hormones
- secretion or hormones from other glands
Neuroendocrine Reflex
- Hypothalamus produces and stores hormones
- released by Post. Pit.
- directly on Adrenal Medulla
Pituitary Gland
- 9 Peptide/ Indirect acting
- Anterior Adreohypophysis
- Posterior Neurohypophysis
Anterior Pituitary:
Portal System
- fenestrated capillaries
- pick up RH in hypothalamus
- send to target cells of Ant. Pit.
Anterior Pituitary:
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
1. Hypothalamus > TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone)
2. Release TSH from Ant. Pit.
3. Triggers release of Thyroid Hormones from Thyroid Gland
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
1. Hypothalamus > CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)
2. Release ACTH from Ant. Pit.
3. Triggers release of glucocorticoids from Adrenal Cortex: Zona Fasciculata
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
1. Hypothalamus > GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)
2. Release FSH from Ant. Pit.
3. Stimulates follicular development
- estrogen secretion on women
-sperm production in males
Leutinizing Hormone
1. Hypothalamus > GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)
2. Release LH from Ant. Pit.
3. Causes ovulation and progesterone production on females
- androgen production in males
- Stimulates Development of mammary glands and milk production
Growth Hormone
- Stimulates cells growth and replication
1. GH-RH
2. GH-IH
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
- Secreted btw Ant. and Post.
- Secrete during fetal, early childhood, pregnancy, and illness
- produces melanin
Posterior Pituitary:
1. ADH
2. Oxytocin
- Decrease water loss in kidneys
- reabsorb water in kidneys
- ^ BV/ BP
- Stimulates contraction in mammary glands
- " in smooth muscle cells of uterus
- overcome anxiety : comfort/ trust
Thyroid Gland
- 2 lobes/ ISTHMUS

- Contains Follicles
> follicular cells release T3 and T4
> C-cells produce Calcitonin
Production of T3 and T4
1. Absorb I- in blood
- TSH opens ion channel
2. I- + tyrosine = hormone
3. w/ thyroid peridoxidase hormone > thyroglobulin in colloid
4. edndocytosis
5. Lysosomes break down and recycle A.A.
6. T3 and T4 diffuse into blood
Parathyroid Hormone
- Cheif Cells: parathyroid hormone
- parathyroid hormone + calcitriol regulate calcium
Increased Levels of Ca2+
- increase excretion in kidneys
- inhibit osteoclasts
Decreased Levels of Ca2+
Parathyroid Hormone
- stimulate osteoclasts
- reabsorb Ca2+ in Kidneys
- stimulate Calcitriol in Kidneys to ^ Ca2+
Adrenal Gland:
Adrenal Cortex
1. Zona Glomerulosa
- mineralcorticoids
2. Zona Fasciculata
- glucocorticoids
3. Zona Recticularis
- androgens (minimal testosterone)
Zona Glomerulosa
-> Aldosterone
- conserves Na+
- eliminates K+
- reabsorbs water > RAS
Zona Glomerulosa: RAS
Renin Angiotensin System
- Renin -> Aniotensin I
-> Angiotensin II: vasoconstrictor
- aldosterone/ ADH released: ^BV/ ^BP
Zona Fasciculata
- adequate glucose in blood
1. break down glycogen > glucose (mus. and liver)
2. glyconeogenesis (A.A. build glucose
3. Adipose tissue : glucose sparing effect
4. Antiinflamatory
Pineal Gland
- Pinealocytes
- synthesize melatonin
- protect damage
- circadian rhythms (SAD)
- inhibit reproduction
Pancreatic Islets
-Alpha : Glucagon
-Beta : Insulin
-Delta : GH-IH
-F cells: Pancreatic peptides
- lowers blood sugar
- increases rate of sugar utilization
- increases blood sugar
- increase rate of sugar break down and production by liver
HIGH Blood Sugar
1. sugar faster to cells
2. use more sugar and ATP
3. glucose to glycogen
4. more A.A. absorption
5. more fat synthesis
LOW Bood Sugar
1. gycogen > glucose
2. fats > fatty acids
3. more production and release of glucose
The Kidneys
- 2 Hormones: Calcitriol, EPO
- 1 Enzyme: Renin
Stimulates Ca2+ absorption in digestive tract
(works with parathyroid hormone)
- stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow
Converts angiotensin to angiotensin I (indirectly into angiotensin II)
Angiotensin II
- In lungs
- Vasoconstrictor
- stim Adrenal production of Aldosterone ^BV/BP
- Stim Pit. Gland release ADH
- Thirst
The Heart
- Natriuretic Peptides when blood pressure too high
- inhibit Aldosterone/ ADH
The Thymus
- maintain immune defenses
The Gonads
-Interstitial cells of testes produce testosterone
- females, oocytes develop in follicles: produce estrogens
- After ovulation, the follicle cells form an endocrine structure called the corpus luteum that releases a mixture of estrogens and progesterone
Thyroid hormones
Reproductive hormones
any condition that threatens homeostasis (physical/emotional)
1. Alarm Phase (immediate, fight or flight, directed by the sympathetic nervous system)
2. Resistance Phase (dominated by glucocorticoids)
3. Exhaustion Phase (breakdown of homeostatic regulation and failure of one or more organ systems)
- Decrease in T3 and T4
- Low Metabolism
- Fatigue
- Increase body weight
- Lethargic and Weak
RX: Sythroid
Hypothyroidism in Infant
- no gland/ inactive gland @ birth
- mother not enough T3 or T4
- Muscular problems
- Mental Retardation
- Increase secretion of T3 and T4
- Increase metabolic rate
- Thin
- Increased energy production
- fatigue
Thyroid Goiter
I- defficiency > can't make T3 and T4
- compmress trachea, esophagus, BV in neck
Male Reproductive System: Pathway of Spermatozoa
- Seminiferous Tubules
- Epididymis
- Vas Deferens
- Ejactulatory duct
Male Reproductive System: Accesory Glands/Organs
- Seminal Vesicles
- Prostate Gland
- Bulbourethral Gland
- Scrotum encloses testes
- Penis
Muscle of scrotal sac
- pulls scrotum close to body
- regulaes scrotal temperature
Tunica Albuginea
Connective Tissue surrounding testes
Partition from Tunica Albuginea to Epididymus
Seminiferous Tubules
- Spermatozoa produced
- " pass through rete testis to epididymus
- epididymus > vas deferens
- Interstitial cells: testosterone
1. Mitosis
2. Meosis
3. Spermiogenisis