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257 Cards in this Set

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adrenal cortex releases these types of hormones.

specifically these hormones
glucocorticoids

cortisol, cortisone
cortisol does this

NOT DONE
glucose regulation and protein metabolism

raise blood glucose levels by promoting protein breakdown
cortisone does this

NOT DONE
glucose regulation and protein metabolism
the adrenal medulla produces
epinephrine and norepinephrine
epinephrine and norepinephrine are
catecholamines
epinephrine does this
increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue, causing an increae in blood glucose levels and an increae in the basal metabolic rate.
epinephrine is also known as
adrenaline
norepinephrine is also known as
noradrenaline
this increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver and muscle tissue
epinephrine
this causes an increase in blood glucose levels and an increase in the basal metabolic rate
epinephrine
This increases the rate and strength of the heartbeat and change the shape of blood vessels to increase blood supply to skeletal muscles heart and brain while decreasing supply to kidneys skin and digestive tract
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Promote the release of lipids by adipose tissue
epinephrine and norepinephrine
The affects of epinephrine and norepinephrine are known as
the fight or flight response
this inhibits digestion and other vegetative functions
epinephrine
epinephrine and norepinephrine are released during sympathetic nervous stimulation making them ____
neurotransmitters
the pituitary gland is also known as
hypophysis
the hypophysis is also known as the
pituitary gland
the hypophysis is connected to the hypothalamus by _____
infundibulum
the anterior pituitary synthesizes:
growth hormone (GH, somatotropin)
prolactin
adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH)
luteinizing hormone(LH)
follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH)
the direct hormones of the anterior pituitary are
growth hormone and prolactin
the infundibulum connects
hypothalamus and pituitary
these are the direct hormones of the anterior pituitary
growth hormone (GH, somatotropin)

prolactin
these are the tropic hormones of the anterior pituitary
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
growth hormone is also known as
somatotropin
somatotropin is also known as
growth hormone
this promotes bone and muscle growth
growth hormone
this promotes protein synthesis and lipid mobilization and catabolism
growth hormone
irregular levels of this in children can result in dwarfism or gigantism
somatotropin
overproduction of this in adults can cause acromegaly
somatotropin
this is a disproportionate overgrowth of bone, localized especially in the jaw, skull feet and hands
acromegaly
this stimulates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands
prolactin
the posterior pituitary synthesizes these hormones
it does not synthesize hormones. it stores and releases them
These are released by the posterior pituitary
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are released by
the posterior pituitary
vasopressin is also known as
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
oxytocin and ADH are produced by
hypothalamus
these are released from the pituitary but secretion is stimulated by the hypothalamus
oxytocin and vasopressin
oxytocin and vasopressin are released from the ______ but secretion is stimulated by the ______
pituitary, hypothalamus
oxytocin is secreted during
childbirth and tit suckling
this increases the strength and frequency of uterine muscle contractions
oxytocin
suckling induces the secretion of this
oxytocin
this stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands
oxytocin
ADH increases ____
the permeability of the nephron's collecting duct to water.

What is a nephron?

What does this increase result in?
ADH increases the permeability of the nephron's collecting duct to water. What does this result in?
raised blood pressure
When is ADH secreted?
when plasma osmolarity increases

When blood volume decreases.
ADH is secreted when plasma osmolarity increases. How does the body know when to do this?
Sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
ADH is secreted when blood volume decreases. How does the body know when to do this?
Sensed by baroreceptors in the circulatory system.
Wheno plasma osmolarity increases, _____.
vasopressin is secreted
When blood volume decreases, _______.
vasopressin is secreted
The hypothalamus is located directly above the _____.
pituitary gland
The pituitary gland is located directly below the _____.
hypothalamus
This looks like a ballsack.
Pituitary gland
This is located just above the ballsack.
hypothalamus
This receives neural transmissions from other parts of the brain and from peripheral nerves that trigger specific responses from its _________.
Hypothalamus

neurosecretory cells
These regulate pituitary gland secretions via negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting and releasing hormones.
neurosecretory cells
Neurosecretory cells regulate _____.
pituitary gland secretions

How do they do this?
Neurosecretory cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via ____.
negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting and relesing hormones.
Hypothalamic releasing hormones do this
stimulate or inhibit secretions of the anterior pituitary
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) does this
stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
This stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
GnRH
Releasing hormones are secreted into the _______.
hyppothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
Blood from a capillary bed in this flows through a portal vein into the anterior pituitary.
hypothalamus

This happens so that ____
Blood from a capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the _______.
anterior pituitary

This happens so that ____
Blood from a capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through this to get to the anterior pituitary.
a portal vein

This happens so that ____
Blood from a capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein to get to the anterior pituitary, where it deverges into a second capillary network. This happens so that _____.
releasing hormones immediately reach the anterior pituitary
__________ in the hypothalamus synthesize oxytocin and ADH and transport them via their axons into the posterior pituitary for storage and secretion.
neurosecretory cells
Neurosecretory cells in the _________ synthesize oxytocin and ADH and transport them via their axons into the posterior pituitary for storage and secretion.
hypothalamus
Neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus synthesize oxytocin and ADH and transport them to _______.
the posterior-pituitary

How does it get there?
How does oxytocin and ADH get transported to the posterior pituitary?
through their axons
The thyroid is important in both children and adults? How in each
children - are essential for growth and development

adult - essential for maintenance of metabolic stability
These are the thyroid hormones
thyroxine (T4)
triiodothyronine (T3)
These are formed on the glycoprotein thyroglobulin
ghyroxine and triiodothyronine
Thyroxine and triiodtothyronine are formed on the ________
glycoprotein thyroglobulin
This is synthesized in the thyroid cell.
glycoprotein thyroglobulin
T3 is five times more potent than _____.
T4
T3 and %4 are transported in the blood by the proteins _____.
TBG, TBPA, Albumin
Approximately 99.5% of these hormones are transported and bound to the proteins TBG, TBPA, Albumin.
T3 and T4
T3 is also known as
triiodothyronine
T4 is also known as
thyroxine
thyroxine is also known as
T4
triiodothyronine is also known as
T3
Only an unbound hormone is able to ___________
enter a cell and elicit a cellular response
Only _______ hormones are able to enter a cell and elicit a cellular response.
unbound
All _____ in the body is formed and secreted by the thyroid gland.
T4
20% of ______ is produced by the thyroid gland.
T3
_____ of the T4 in the body is formed and secreted by the thyroid gland.
All
_____ of the T3 in the body is formed and secreted by the thyroid gland.
20%
Majority of T3 in the body is produced by the conversion of ______ by the enzyme 5'--monodeiodase found primarily in the peripheral tissues.
T4 to T3
The majority of _______ is produced by the conversion of T4 by the enzyme 5'--monodeiodase.
T3
5'--monodeiodase does this
converts T4 to T3
5'--monodeiodase is found primarily here
peripheral tissues
T4 and T3 are derived from _______
the iodination of the amino acid tyrosine
tyrosine goes through iodination to form
T4 and T3
T4 and T3 increase the rate of this throughout the body
metabolism
T4 and T3 _____ the rate of metabolism throughout the body.
increase
These increase the rate of metabolism throughout the body.
T4 and T3
hypothyroidism is
when thyroid hormones are undersecreted or not secreted at all
this is the name for when thyroid hormones are undersecreted or not secreted at all
hypothyroidism
common symptoms of hypothyroidism
slowed heart and respiratory rate, fatigue, cold intolerance, weight gain
hypothyroidism in newborn infants is called
cretinism
common symptoms of hyperthyroidism
increased metabolic rate, feelings of excessive warmth, profuse sweating, palpitations, weight loss, protruding eyes
cretenism is characterized by
mental retardation and short stature
mental retardation and short stature in a person could be the result of
cretinism
cretinism results from
hypothyroidism in newborns
hyperthyroidism is
when the thyroid is overstimulated resulting in the oversecretion of thyroid hormones
this occurs when the thyroid is overstimulated resulting in the oversecretion of thyroig hormones
hyperthyroidism
These symptoms are signs of what. Increased metabolic rate, feelings of excessive warmth, profuse sweating, palpitations, weight loss, protruding eyes
hyperthyroidism
These symptoms are signs of what? Slowed heart and respiratory rate, fatigue, cold intolerance, weight gain
hypothryroidism
In both of these disorders the thyroid often enlarges forming a neck bulge or goiter.
hypo/hyperthyroidism
In both hypo/hyperthyroidism, the thyroid often _________.
enlarges, forming a neck bulge/goiter
Calcitonin decreases ______
plasma Ca2+ concentration
Calcitonin decreases plasma Ca2+ concentration by ______
inhibiting the release of Ca2+ from bone.
This decreases plasma Ca2+ concentration by inhibiting the release of Ca2+ from bone.
calcitonin
Calcitonin secretion is regulated by _____
plasma Ca2+ levels
______ secretion is regulated by plasma Ca2+ levels.
calcitonin
Calcitonin is _____ to the parathyroid hormone.
antagonistic
______ is antagonistic to the parathyroid hormone.
calcitonin
Calcitonin is antagonistic to _______.
parathyroid hormone
What kind of organ is the pancreas exocrine or endocrine
both
The _____ function of the pancreas is performed by the cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestine via a series of ducts.
exocrine
The exocrine function of the pancreas is performed by
the cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestine via a series of ducts.
The exocrine function of the pancreas is performed by cells that secrete
digestive enzymes into the small intestine
The exocrine function of the pancreas is performed by the cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestine via ______
a series of ducts
The endocrine function of the pancreas is performed by small glandular structures called
the islets of Langerhans
The endocrine function of the pancreas is performed by
mall glandular structures called islets of Langerhans
The ____ function of the pancreas is performed by small glandular structures called the islets of Langerhans
endocrine
The islets of langerhans are composed of
alpha and beta cells
The islets of langerhans are found in
the pancreas
Alpha cells of the islets of langerhans do this
produce and secrete glucagon
Beta cells of the islets of langerhans do this
produce and secrete insulin
produce and secrete glucagon
alpha cells of islets of langerhans
produce and secrete insulin
beta cells of islets of langerhans
Glucagon stimulates
protein and fat degradation, the conversion of glycogen to glucose and gluconeogenesis.
Glucagon increases
blood glucose levels
Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by
stimulating protein and fat degradation, the conversion of glycogen to glucose and gluconeogenesis.
This increases blood glucose levels
glucagon
This stimulates protein and fat degradation, the conversion of glycogen to glucose and gluconeogenesis.
glucagon
Glucagon is antagonistic to
insulin
Insulin is antagonistic to
glucagon, cortisol, cortisone
Parathyroid hormone is antagonistic to
calcitonin
_____ is a protein hormone secreted in response to a high blood glucose concentration
Insulin
_____ stimulates the uptake of glucose by muscle and adipose cells.
insulin
This stimulates the storage of glucose in muscle and liver cells.
insulin
insulin stimulates
the uptake of glucose by muscle and adipose cells and the storage of glucose in muscle and liver cells. Also the synthesis of fats from glucose and the uptake of amino acids
This stimulates the synthesis of fats from glucose and the uptake of amino acids
insulin
10% of diabetics are Type ____
I
90% of diabetics are Type ____
II
___ of diabetics are Type I
10%
___ of diabetics are Type II
90%
The age onset of type I diabetes is usually
<30
The age onset of type II diabetes is usually
>30
The pathogenesis of Type I diabetes is
-presence of islet cell antibodies.

-autoimmune response
The pathogenesis of Type II diabetes is
-decreased insulin secretion

-resistance to insulin

-hepatic glucose production
With Type ___ diabetes there is usually no plasma insulin.
I
With Type ___ diabetes there is an etiology dependent low, normal or high level of plasma insulin.
II
With Type I diabetes there is ____ plasma insulin.
usually no
With Type II diabetes there is ____ plasma insulin.
low, normal or high levels of

etiology dependent
There is ____ family history in Type I Diabetes.
usually no
There is ____ family history in Type II Diabetes.
strong
There is strong family history in Type ___ Diabetes.
II
There is usually no family history in Type ___ Diabetes.
I
Obesity is ____ in Type I diabetes.
Uncommon
Obesity is ____ in Type II diabetes.
Common
Obesity is common in Type ____ diabetes.
II
Obesity is uncommon in Type ____ diabetes.
I
_____ is the most common endocrine disorder.
Diabetes
Underproduction of insulin or an insensitivity to insulin leads to
diabetes mellitus
Glucocorticoids are an antagonist of _____
Insulin
Cortisol is an antagonist of ____
Insulin
Cortisone is an antagonist of ____
Insulin
This leads to diabetes mellitus
Underproduction of insulin
insensitivity to insulin
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by
hyperglycemia
This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia.
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes affects these
eyes, nerves, kidneys and blood vessels
These are four small pea-shaped structures embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid.
parathyroid glands
These are embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid.
parathyroid glands
Parathyroid glands are embedded in the ______ of the thyroid.
posterior surface
These glands synthesize and secrete PTH
parathyroid glands
Parathyoroid glands synthesize and secrete this
PTH
PTH raises
plasma Ca2+ concentration
___ raises plasma Ca2+ concentration in the blood by stimulating Ca2+ release from the bone and decreasing Ca2+ secretion in the kidneys
PTH
PTH does this
raises plasma Ca2+ concentration
PTH raises Ca2+ concentration in the blood by _____
stimulating Ca2+ release from the bone and decreasing Ca2+ secretion in the kidneys
Calcium in the bone is bonded to ____
phosphate
___ in the bone is bonded to phosphate.
Calcium
This raises Ca2+ concentration in the blood
PTH
Breakdown of the bone releases ____
phosphate and calcium
_____ compensates for the breakdown of bone into phosphate and calcium.
PTH
PTH compensates for the breakdown of bone into ______.
phosphate and calcium
_____ synthesize and secrete hormones directly in the the circulatory system
endocrine glands
_____ secrete hormones that are transported by ducts.
exocrine glands
PTH compensates for the breakdown of bone in to phosphate and calcium by ____
stimulating the excretion of phosphate by the kidneys
When ____ the kidneys produce renin.
blood volume drops
When blood volume drops the kidneys produce ____
renin
The ____ produce renin when blood volume drops
kidneys
Renin is an enzyme that does this
converts the plasma protein angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
After angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II, the adrenal cortex is stimulated to secrete ____
aldosterone
Kidneys produce
erythropoietin(EPO) and renin
Aldosterone helps to do this

It does it by doing this

Which results in
restore blood volume

increasing sodium reabsorption at the kidney

an increase in water
____ helps restore blood volume by increasing sodium reabsorption at the kidney, leading to an increase in water
aldosterone
EPO is a
glycoprotein
EPO stimulates
RBC production
EPO stands for
eryhtropoietin
____ stimulates RBC production
EPO
EPO stimulates stem cells to
differentiate into rubriblasts
____ increases the rate of mitosis
EPO
____ increases the release of reticulocytes from the bone marrow.
EPO
____ increases hemoglobin formation which allows the critical hemoglobin concentration necessary for maturity to be reached at a more rapid rate.
EPO
___ stimulates stem cells to differentiate into rubriblasts
EPO
EPO ____ the rate of mitosis
increases
EPO ____ the release of reticulocytes from the bone marrow.
increases
EPO ____ hemoglobin formation which allows the critical hemoglobin concentration necessary for maturity to be reached at a more rapid rate.
increases
Ingested food stimulates the stomach to release the hormone ____
gastrin
This stimulates the stomach to release the hormone gastrin.
ingested food
Ingested food stimulates the ____ to release the hormone gastrin.
stomach
____ is carried to the gastric glands and stimulates them to secrete HCl
gastrin
This is released by the small intestine when acidic food enters from the stomach.
secretin
Secretin is released by _____
the small intestine
Secretin is released by the small intestine when
acidic food enters from the stomach
Secretin stimulates the secretion of
an alkaline bicarbonate solution from the pancreas
Secretin stimulates the secretion of an alkaline bicarbonate solution from
the pancreas
The alkaline bicarbonate solution does this
neutralizing the acidity of the chyme
This is released from the small intestine in response to the presence of fats
cholecystokinin
Cholecystokinin is released from this
small intestine
Cholecystokinin is released from the small intestine in the response to
fats
This causes the contraction of the gall bladder and release of bile into the small intestine
Cholecystokinin
Cholecystokinin causes
the contraction of the gall bladder and release of bile into the small intestine
Bile breaks down ___
fats
This breaks down fats
bile
The pineal gland secretes
melatonin
This secretes melatonin
pineal gland
Melatonin secretion is regulated by
light and dark cycles in the environment
_____ secretion is regulated by light and dark cycles in the environment
melatonin
Melatonin is an antagonist to
MSH
MSH is an antagonist to
melatonin
Hormones are classified on the basis of their chemical structure into two major groups:
peptide hormones
steroid hormones
There are two ways hormones affect the activities of their target cells:
via extracellular receptors or intracellular receptors
cAMP is
cyclic adenosine monophosphate
cAMP acts as a
second messenger
A second messenger does this
relays messages from the extracellular peptide hormone to cytoplasmic enzymes
cAMP is inactivated by
phosphodiesterase
This is inactivated by phosphodiesterase
cAMP
Insulin is this type of hormone
complex polypeptide
ADH is this type of hormone
simple short peptide (amino acid chain)
Estrogen is this type of hormone
steroid
Aldosterone is this type of hormone
steroid
These belong to a class of lipid-derived molecules with a characteristic ring structure
steroids
These are produced by the testes, ovaries, placenta and adrenal cortex
steroids
Steroids are produced by
testes, ovaries, placenta, adrenal cortex
Steroids are ____ soluble
lipid
Because they are lipid soluble, ____ enter their target cells directly and bind to specific receptor proteins in the cytoplasm
steroids
Because they are lipid soluble, steroids ______
enter their target cells directly
After they enter the target cells, steroids bind to
specific receptor proteins in the cytoplasm
The receptor-hormone complex made from the protein receptor and steroid hormone enters the nucleus and _____
directly activates the expression of specific genes by binding to receptors on the chromatin
The receptor-hormone complex made from the protein receptor and steroid hormone enters the _____ and directly activates the expression of specific genes by binding to receptors on the chromatin
nucleus
The receptor-hormone complex made from the protein receptor and steroid hormone enters the nucleus and directly activates the expression of specific genes by binding to ____
receptors on the chromatin
When the steroid-hormone complex enters the nucleus and binds to receptors on the chromatin it induces this
change in mRNA transcription and protein synthesis