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22 Cards in this Set

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Which hormones are produced in the Anterior Pituitary?
Growth Hormone (GH), Adrenocorticotropin Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Prolactin (PRL)
Which type of receptors do steroid hormones use?
Intracellular receptors
Cell surface receptors are bound by which types of hormones to activate enzymes?
Proteins, Catecholamines, Eicosanoids and Amino Acid derivatives
What are the 3 parts of the Pituitary gland (Hypophysis)?
Anterior (Adenohypophysis), Posterior (neural outgrowth of Hypothalamus) and Pars Intermedia
What are the 6 major hypothalamic factors?
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)
GH-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Prolactin-inhibitory hormone (PIH)
Since hormones are not made in the posterior pituitary, like the anterior, where are they synthesized?
In the magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamus
What two hormones does the posterior pituitary release, and what are their functions?
ADH (vasopressin) - acts on kidney to regulate water and electrolytes; Oxytocin - stimulates parturition and maternal behavior
What are the follicles of the Thyroid gland filled with?
Colloid, essentially a pool of thyroglobulin
What is in the space between the thyroid follicles?
Parafollicular cells (C cells), whose function is to secrete the hormone Calcitonin
What are the two thyroid hormones and which is most common?
T3 and T4 (both are amines), of which T4 is the most secreted because it lasts longer in circulation.

Note: Most T4 is converted to T3 in the cell
What do the thyroid hormones effect?
They increase the basal metabolic rate; oxygen usage is increased, ensuring blood delivery to tissues. Stimulate bone formation and growth.
Where are the 3 pools of calcium in the body?
1. Intracellular
2. Extracellular (50% is bound to proteins)
3. Bone stores (Only 1% can be exchanged as most is in mineral state)
Calcium homeostasis is controlled by which three hormones?
Calcitonin (lowers blood ca), PTH (raises blood ca) and vitamin D (helps express calbindins in small intestine)
What classes of hormones does the adrenal gland secrete, and from which part?
Cortex - Corticosteroids (Aldosterone, Cortisol, Estrogen)
Medulla - Catecholamines (Adrenaline, Noradrenaline)
What are the zones of the Adrenal gland?
Cortex - (from capsule to medulla) Zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis.
Medulla - simply made up of chromaffin cells
What are chromaffin cells?
In medulla of adrenal gland. Have cytoplasms full of hormone-containing granules. Synthesize and secrete adrenaline and noradrenaline.
What are the functions of aldosterone and cortisol?
Aldosterone - promote reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+ in kidneys.
Cortisol - raise blood glucose level.
Granules secreted from chromaffin cells bind to albumin and attach to adrenergic receptors on target cells. How many andrenergic receptors are there? (
2 alpha and 3 beta. They increase blood pressure, heart rate, vasodilation, muscle tremor, etc.
The endocrine cells in the Pancreas cluster together in Islets of Langerhans. What types of cells are there?
Alpha - produce glucagon.
Beta - produce insulin (60%).
Delta - produce somatostatin.
What are the actions of glucagon and insulin?
Insulin - a protein that lowers blood glucose level.
Glucagon - a protein that increases blood glucose level.
What cells take up glucose from the blood when insulin is released?
Fat cells!
Who are awesome vet students?
We are :-)