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55 Cards in this Set

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Hormone structure
-Pretty small molecules
-Thyroid hormone
Amino acids an example of these hormoones is epinephrine, norepinephrine and thyroid hormone
hormone structure
-chains of amino acids
-ADH, oxytocin are examples of?
Peptide
hormone struture
-cholestrol based
-estrogen, testostreone, aldosterone
Steroids
What hormones are produces from the hypothalamus?
ADH, Oxytocin,GIH growth inhibiting hormone, CRH calcitropin releasing hormone, TRH Thyrotropin releasing hormone, GnRH Gonadotropin releasing hormone, PRH Prolactin releasing hormone, PIH prolactin inhibiting hormone
Name the hormones of the anterion pituitary
ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH
name the hormones released at the posterior pituitary?
ADH, oxytocin is released
name the hormones produced in the thyroid gland?
Thyroxine (T4), Thiiodothyroine (T3)
Calcitonin CT)
name the hormones of the adrenal cortex
cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, androgens
name the hormones of the amrenal medulla
epinephrine and norepiniphrine
name the hormones and the related cells of the pancreatic islets
Glucagon from the alpha cells
and insulin from the beta cell
also produces somatostatin
name the hormones from the kidney
erythropoietin and calcitrol
What hormones come from the gonads
Testies: Androgens (especially testosterone), inhibin
Ovaries:estrogens, progesttins, inhibin
Hormones of adipose tissue
leptin and Resistin
Name the structure that connects the two lobes of the thyroid?
isthmus
What are C cells? where are they located? what is their function?
C cells are clacitonin secreating cells located around the folicles (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid.
Name 6 common releasing/inhibiting hormones hormones
GIH, GRH, PRH, PIH, TRH, GnRH
What happens when a follicle is stimulated by FSH
-Cells surrounding the ova produce estroge and support maturiation of eggs and helps sustain the lining of the uterus.
What is the initial lab test that would be done by a physician evaluating a patients thyroid function.
A physiician would first test for TSH levels
What is the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary.
They are connected by a structuer calle the infundibulum. this is the structure releasing and inhibiting hormones are sent through.
Where does TSH come from
Anterior pituitary
Describe two hormones related to calcium management
Calcitonin and PARATHYROID HORMONE
WHERE IS PROLACTIN RELEASED FROM AND WHAT IS ITS TARGET
ANTERIOR PITUITARY TARGETS BREAST TISSUE ( MAMMARY GLANDS)
WHAT IS THE SOURCE, TARGET AND EFFECT OF LH
SOURCE=ANTERIOR PITUITARY
TARGET= GONADS
EFFECT= TRIGERS OVULATION AND PROMOTES DEVELOPMENT OF CORPUS LUTEUM IN FEEMALES AND STIMULATES PRODUCTION OF TESTERONE IN MALES
WHAT IS THE SOURCE, TARGET AND EFFECT OF ADH
Source:Posterior piuitary
Target: Kidneys
Function: Promotes water rtention by kidney tubules; raises blood pressure by stimulating muscles in walls of small arteries
Name the 3 classes of hormones from the adrenial cortex
Mineralcortiicoids
Glucoocrticoids
Gonadocorticoids
What is aneima?
Low Hematocrit or RBC's have a decreased hemoglobin content and decreased carryimg copacity
What is the test called that measures the % of whole blood volume occupied by cellular elements?
Hematoctit
Wha tis Erythropiesis?
formation of RBC's
What is Hypoxia?
Low tissue oxygen levels.
What is agglutination?
binding of antigens and antibodies causes th eforeighn RBC's to clump together.
What is Leukocytosis
Increase of Leukocytes (WBC's)
What is hemolytic disease?
When different blood types of the mother and the fetus mix. during the second child the mothers antibodies will attack and destroy the fetal RBC's
What is graves disease?
Hyperthyroidism caused by an auto immune attack on the thyroid gland.
What increases progestrone?
Follicles stimulated by FSH. after ovulation when the cells reorganize into a corpus luteum they release more progesterone.
What hormone is released from the heart. and what is it's function
Atrial natriuretic peptide. It promotes the loss of sodium ions and water at the kidneys and inhibits renin release and the secreation of ADH and aldosterone. (Results in a reduction in blood volume and pressure.
What hormone is released from adipose tissue?
Leptin: increases the storage of body fat and Suppersses appetite

Resistin: decreases sensitivity of body cells to insulin.
Where is the thymus located?
behind teh sternum
What hoermones are released from the kidney? what is their function?
Calcitrol: Stimulates uptake of calcium in GI tract, kidneys, bone resorption.
Erythropietin: Stimulates RBC production in marrow
Renin: Increases Plood pressure.
What are gonads?
testies and ovaries
what are two cell types of the testies and what hormone do they release.
Interstitial cells: release testosterone
sustentacular cells: suppeor support sperm development and control with the hormone inhibin and FSH and GnRH.
Describe the regions within the pancreas?
The regions are called islets of langerhans they contain alpha and beta cells.
What do alpha and beta cells produce?
Alpha cells produce glucagon
beta cells produce insulin
What and how is the function of insulin?
Insuline lowers blood sugar by opening the door to sugar for many body sells. brain and kidney have no receptors- can take in glucose as needed) it stimulates the storage of sugar as glycogen, more energy in fat cells.
What and how is the function of glucagon?
Glucagon raises blood sugar by stimulating glycogen release from the liver. utilization of triglyercides breakdown of protein from new sugar.
Name the cheif mineralocortocoid and its function?
Aldosterone -stimulates the conservation of sodium at the cost of potassium.-Targets kidney tubules, sweat glands, Saliva, Pancreas.- increases the sensetivitsy of salt receptive taste buds.-secreated in response to a drop in decreased sodium content. blood volume or blood pressure.
Name three glucocorticorids ( also know as the steroid hormones) and the function of glucocorticoids
Cortisol-Corticosterone-Cortisone- glucocorticoids accelerate the rate of glucose synthesis especially within the liver.
What controls glucocorticoid secreation?
Secreaton occurs under ACTH stimulation. and is regulated by negarive feedback.
What does PTH do?
How?
Raises blood calcium
by stimulating osteoclast, intestinal absorption and urinary retention
By what and where is PTH secreated?
PTH comes from cheif cells in the parathyroid.
What does PTH stimulate the release of?
Calcitrol from the kidneys. tells the GI tract ot absorb more Ca
What are the three type of heart tissues nd their distinguishing characteristics?
-epicardium it is a serious membrain that covers the outer wall
-myocardium is the muscular wall of the herat contains cardiac muscle tissue, blood vessels, and nerves.
-endocardium inner surface it is simple squamous epithelium that is continuous with endothelium.
What are the components of blood list these along with their functions?
-Plasma contains Albumins proteins important for osmotic pressure
Globulins antibodie (small proteins made by the cell
Fibrogen clotting process.
-Buffy coat clear thin layer in the middle
-Packed RBC's carry o2 and co2
Define calcitrol?
Teh active form of vitiman D that promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestines. acts along with parathyroid hormone to maintain bone homeostasis.
what is the function of CRH?
Stimulate teh release of ACTH
What is the function of ACTH?
Stimulate the release of steroid hormones in the acrenal cortex known as gulcocorticoids.