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42 Cards in this Set

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endocrine system is made up of 3 things
1. endocrine glands (release products directly into blood which are transported to all cells)
2. cells
3. tissues
hormones:
made and secreted by __1__.
important type of __2__ by which cells __3__.
secreted into __4__ and transported by __5__.
bind with __6__ or __7__.
1. endocrine glands
2. chemical signal
3. communicate
4. interstitial fluid
5. blood
6. receptors on
7. in specific target cells
4 types of endocrine signaling, example, description
1. classic endocrine signaling (endocrine gland releases hormone, transported in blood to target cell which generates response)
2. neuroendocrine signaling (neuroendocrine cell releases neurohormone, transported in blood to target cell, ex. hypothalamus)
3. autocrine regulation (cell releases hormone into interstitial fluid which acts on itself, ex. smooth muscle/prostoglandins)
4. paracrine regulation (cell releases hormone into interstitial fluid which acts on nearby cells, ex. pancreas/somatostatin)
9 endocrine glands
1. hypothalamus
2. pituitary gland
3. pineal gland
4. thymus gland
5. thyroid gland
6. parathyroid glands
7. adrenal glands
8. pancreas
9. ovary/testes
two types of hormones, derivatives, ex.
1. amino acid based : amino acid derivative : peptides and proteins
2. steroid based : fatty acid derivatives : steroids
amino acid based hormones are hydro__1__. act at __2__ causing activation of __3__ leading to __4__. usually increases synthesis of __5__. makes up __6__ hormones.
1. hydrophillic
2. target cell surface
3. secondary messengers
4. changes in cell activity
5. proteins
6. most
steroids are hydro__1__ (or __2__) so they can travel to __3__ where they react with __4__ which may cause __5__.
1. hydrophobic
2. lipophillic
3. inside of target cell
4. specific receptors inside cytoplasm
5. DNA alterations for protein synthesis
peptide hormones carry out actions using secondary messengers such as __1__
1. calcium ions
hormone secretion is typically regulated by __1__ (describe)
1. negative feedback mechanism (hormone released to change in steady state, triggers response that counteracts that change, restore homeostasis)
parathyroid gland secretes __1__ which regulates __2__ levels in blood by stimulating __3__ and decreasing __4__
1. parathyroid hormone (PTH)
2. calcium
3. calcium release from bones
4. calcium release by kidneys
the thyroid gland secretes __1__ which acts antagonistically with __2__ by causing bones to __3__.
1. calcitonin
2. PTH
3. store more calcium
regulation of calcium by homeostasis:
1. when calcium too low
2. when calcium too high
1. parathyroid > PTH > osteoclasts release Ca, kidney/intestine increase Ca reabsorption
2. parathyroid inhibited, thyroid > calcitonin > osteoclasts inhibited, kidney/intestine reabsorption inhibited
endocrine disorders result from __1__, which causes __2__ of target cells, or __3__, which causes __4__ of target cells
1. hypersecretion
2. over stimulation
3. hyposecretion
4. under stimulation
hypothalamus links __1__ and __2__ systems, secretes __3__ and __4__ hormones, regulates hormone output of __5__.
1. nervous
2. endocrine
3. releasing
4. inhibiting
5. pituitary
anterior pituitary releases 7 hormones
1. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
2. LH (Lutenizing hormone)
3. GH (growth hormone)
4. prolactin
5. MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone)
6. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
7. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone
FSH and LH are released by __1__, cause growth of __2__ in males and females and release __3__ hormones, control __4__ development and __5__ cycle.
1. AP
2. gonads
3. estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
4. gamete
5. menstrual
growth hormone: hypothalamus secretes __1__ and __2__ which signal __3__ to release GH. it's a(n) __4__ hormone that stimulates __5__.
1. GHRH
2. GHIH (somatostatin)
3. AP
4. anabolic
5. body growth
in adults and growing children, GH is secreted __1__ and increases during __2__. __3__ support necessary for production of GH, lack of which can lead to __4__. __5__ and __6__ hormones also interact with growth process.
1. in pulses throughout the day
2. sleep and exercise
3. emotional
4. psychosocial dwarfism
5. thyroid
6. sex
prolactin is secreted by __1__ and the target organs are the __2__; causes __2__ to __3__.
1. AP
2. mammary glands
3. make milk
MSH is __1__ and is secreted by __2__. main function is stimulation of production/release of __3__ by __4__ in skin. Vitamin __5__ is involved.
1. melanocyte stimulating hormone
2. AP
3. melanin
4. melanocytes
5. D
TSH: TSHRF and TSHIH are released by __1__ which control release of TSH by __2__. targets __3__ gland, causing it to release __4__, primarily increasing __5__ of all body cells.
1. hypothalamus
2. AP
3. thyroid
4. thyroxine
5. metabolism
thyroid glands secretes __1__ and __2__ which stimulate rate of metabolism.
1. thyroxine
2. triiodothyronine
__1__ is a key component of thyrozine, without which there is no __2__, eventually resulting in __3__ caused by __4__, treated by __5__.
1. iodine
2. inhibition
3. goiter
4. hypothyroidism
5. removal of thyroid
acth is __1__, a __2__ hormone. release from __3__ is controlled by __4__ through __5__. the target is the __6__, which releases __7__ to __8__, __9__ to __10__, and __11__.
1. adrenocorticotropic hormone
2. steroid
3. AP
4. hypothalamus
5. corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)
6. adrenal cortex
7. aldosterone
8. regulate salt uptake in kidney
9. cortisol
10. break down glycogen in liver (and has anti-inflammatory efects)
11. sex hormone precursors
adrenal medulla produces __1__ and __2__.
1. epinephrine
2. norepinephrine
posterior pituitary secretes 2 hormones (name, function)
1. oxytocin (uterine contractions, mammary tissue contractions)
2. ADH (causes kidneys to retain water by making collecting ducts more permeable to water)
disorder in which pituitary doesn't produce enough ADH, resulting in massive fluid loss
diabetes insipidus
area of pancreas that secretes hormones: __1__. __2__ is produced by __3__ cells and stimulates cells to take up glucose, thereby __4__ blood glucose. __5__ is produced by __6__ cells, which __7__ blood glucose.
1. islets of Langerhans
2. insulin
3. beta
4. decreasing
5. glucagon
6. alpha
7. increases
__1__ is a carbohydrate metabolism disorder, and the most common endocrine disorder. (2,3, name, describe two types)
__4__ is high glucose concentration and __5__ is low glucose concentration
1. diabetes mellitus
2. Type I: insulin-dependent, develops before age 30, decline of beta cells, daily injections
3. Type II: most common, slow onset, overweight, lack functional receptors on target cells, controlled through diet
4. hyperglycemia
5. hypoglycemia
gonads release __1__ and __2__ (in women) and cause __3__. in men, they release __3__ which causes __4__ and is necessary for __5__ development.
1. estrogen
2. progesterone
3. growth & development of reproductive organs
4. growth & development of male characteristics
5. sperm
pineal gland secretes __1__ which peaks at __2__ and inhibits secretion of __3__ by the __4__
1. melatonin
2. night
3. GnRH
4. hypothalamus
the kidneys release __1__ in response to __2__ which increases the number of __3__ so that __4__.
1. erythropoietin (EPO)
2. low oxygen
3. red blood cells
4. more oxygen can be carried to tissues
stomach/intestine cells release __1__, __2__, and __3__
1. gastrin
2. secretin
3. cholecystokinin (CCK)
gastrin is released by __1__ cells into blood in response to various foods or stretching of __1__. stimulates release of __2__ necessary for __3__ and also stimulates __4__ in the __1__.
1. stomach
2. acids
3. digestion
4. motility
secretin is released by __1__ in response to presence of __2__. causes __3__ to release __4__ and __5__ to __6__.
1. small intestine
2. stomach acid
3. pancreas
4. digestive enzymes
5. bicarbonate
6. neutralize acid
CCK is __1__. it's released by __2__ cells in response to presence of __3__. causes __4__ to slow and __5__ to release __6__. also causes __7__ to contract.
1. cholecystokinin
2. small intestine
3. fatty acids
4. stomach
5. pancreas
6. enzymes
7. gallbladder
hyposecretion of growth hormone leads to __1__. hypersecretion leads to __2__.
1. pituitary dwarfism
2. gigantism in children, acromegaly in adults
hyposecretion of thyroid hormones leads to __1__. hypersecretion leads to __2__.
1. cretinism (children), iodine deficiency leads to goiter, myxedema (hypothyroidism)
2. hyperthyroidism (increased metabolism, irritability, nervousness), Grave's disease (goiter)
hyposecretion of parathyroid hormones leads to __1__. hypersecretion leads to __2__.
1. spontaneous discharge of nerves, spasms, death
2. weak, brittle bones, kidney stones
hyposecretion of insulin leads to __1__. hypersecretion leads to __2__.
1. diabetes mellitus
2. hypoglycemia
hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones leads to __1__. hypersecretion leads to __2__.
1. Addison's disease
2. Cushing's disease
adrenal medulla acts in response to __1__ stress with __2__ hormones and adrenal cortex acts in response to __3__ stress with __4__.
1. acute
2. epinephrine, norepinephrine
3. chronic
4. cortisol