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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adeno
gland
adreno
adrenalo
adrenal gland
andro
male
crino
to secrete
dipso
thirst
gluco
glucoso
glyco
glycoso
sugar
hormono
hormone (an urging on)
keto
ketono
ketone bodies
pancreato
pancreas
thymo
thymus gland
thyro
throido
thyroid gland (sheild)
adrenal glands
suprarenal glands
located next to each kidney, the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
steroid hormones
glucocorticoids
mineral corticosteroids
androgens
regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt and water balance some effect on sexual characterisitics
epinephrine
norepinephrine
affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response
ovaries
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
estrogen
progesterone
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and the regulation of reproduction
pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
located behind the stomach in front of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, functioning to secrete insulin and glucagon
insulin
glucagon
regulate carbohydrate/sugar metabolism
parathyroid glands
located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck, functioning to secrete parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone
regulates calcium and phosporus metabolism
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain, function to secrete melatonin and serotonin
melatonin
exact function unknown, affects onset of puberty
serotonin
a neurotransmitter that serves as the precurson to melatonin
pituitary gland
hypophysis
located at the base of the brain, the anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin; the posterior pituitary releases antidiuretic hormoe and oxytocin
adenohypophysis
anterior pituitary
thyroid-stimulating hormone
stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
adrenocorticotrophic hormone
stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone
initiates growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males
luteinizing hormone
causes ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone by corpus luteum; causes secretion of testosterone in testes
melanocyte- stimulating hormone
affects skin pigmentation
growth hormone
influences growth
prolactin
stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy
poterior pituitary
neurohypophysis
antidiuretic hormone
influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
oxytocin
influences uterine contraction
testes
located one of each side within the scrotum in the male, functioning to secrete testosterone
testosterone
affects masculinization and reproduction
thymus gland
located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart, functioning to secrete thymosin
thymosin
regulates immune reponse
thyroid gland
located in front of the neck, functioning to secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
triiodothyronine (T3)
thyroxine (T4)
known as the thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism
calcitonin
regulates calcium and phosphrous metabolism
exophthalmos
exophthalmus
protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
glucosuria
glycosuria
glucose in the urine
hirsutism
shaggy; an excessive growth of hair especially in unusual places
hypercalcemia
an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
hypocalcemia
an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
hyperglycemia
high blood sugar
hypoglycemia
low blood sugar
hyperkalemia
an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood
hypokalemia
deficient level of potassium in the blood
hyponatremia
low level of sodium ions in the blood
hypernatremia
excessive level of sodium ions in the blood
hypersecretion
decreased secretion
ketosis
ketoacidosis
diabetic ketoacidosis
presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal utilization of carobohydrates as seen in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation
metabolism
all chemical processes in the body that represent growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions
polydipsia
excessive thirst
polyuria
excessive urination
Cushing Sydrome
Collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of corisol hormone from any cause, such as a result of excessive production by the adrenal gland, or more commonly as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid hormones such as prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or other inflammatory diseases. Symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness, hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easy bruised skin with stria, hypertension and osteoporosis
adrenal virilism
excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen in adult women owing to tumor or hyperplasia evidenced by amenorrhea acne, hirsutism and deepening voice
diabetes mellitus
metabolic disorder caused by an abnormal utilization of insulin secreted by the pancreas evidenced by hyperglycemia and glucosuria
insulin
hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
type 1 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which there is no beta cell production of insulin- the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
type 2 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which the body produces insulin, but not enough,or there is insulin resistance the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
hyperinsulinism
condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in the hypogycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
hyperparathyroidism
hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
hypoparathyroidism
hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
Pituitary Gland
(Hypophysis)
considered the master gland because if secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands, such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes
acromegaly
disease characterized by enlarged features, especially the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped most often caused by a pituitary tumor
diabetes insipidus
condition of abnormal increase in urine output most commonly caused b inadequate secretion of pituitary antidiuretic hormone; symptoms include polyuria and polydipsia; urine appears colorless due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine
pituitary dwarfism
condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone slowing growth and causing a short yet proportionate stature often treated during childhood with growth hormone
pituitary gigantism
condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, especially of the lone bones; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation
hyperthyroidism
Graves disease
thyrotoxicosis
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor
hypthyroidism
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in slugishness, slow pulse and often obesity
myxedema
advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin
cretinism
condition of congeital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed
blood sugar
blood glucose
measurement of the level of sugar in the blood
fasting blood sugar
measurement of blood sugar level after a fast of 12 hours
postprandial blood sugar
measurement of blood sugar level after a meal, commonly after 2 hours
glucose tolerance level
measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine for glucose levels every hour thereafter - usually for 4 - 6 hours
glycohemoglobin
molecule in hemoglobin that rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar; it is a common blood test used in diagnosing and treating diabetes, also known as glycosylated hemoglobin
electrolytes
measurement of the level of specific ions in the blood, sodium, potassium, CO2 and chloride, electrolyte balance is essential for normal metabolism
thyroid function study
measuremnt of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine efficiency of glandular secretions, including T3, T4 and TSH
urine sugar and ketone studies
chemical tests to determine the presence of sugar of ketone bodies in the urine; used as a screen for diabetes
computer tomography
CT of the head is used to obtain a transverse view of the pituitary gland
MRI
nonionizing images of magnetic resonance are useful in identifying abnormalities of pituitary, pancreas, adrenal, and thyroid glands
sonography
sonographic images are used to identify endocrine pathology such as with thyroid ultrasound
thyroid uptake and image
nuclear image involving scan of the thyroid to visualize the radioactive accumulation of previously ingested isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
adrenalectomy
excision of adrenal gland
hypophysectomy
excision of pituitary gland
pancreatectomy
excision of a pancreas
parathyroidectomy
excision of a parathyroid gland
thymectomy
excision of thymus gland
thyroidectomy
excision of throid gland
continuous subcunateous insulin infusion
insulin pump therapy
use of an insulin delivery device worn on the body that sucutanelously infuses doses of insulin programmed according to teh individual needs of the diabetic patient
radioiodine therapy
use of radioactive iodine to treat disease such as to eradicate thyroid tumor cells
antihypglycemic
drug that raises blood glucose
antithyroid drug
agent that blocks the production of thyroid hormones; used to treat hperthyroidism
hormone replacement
drug that replaces a hormone deficiency
hypoglycemic
antihyperglycemic
drug that lowers bood glucose