Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Growth Hormone
Source: Anterior Pituitary
Action: stimulates bone and muscle growth
Prolactin
Source: Anterior Pituitary
Action: Stimulates milk production and secretion
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Source: Anterior Pituitary
Action: Stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Source: Anterior Pituitary
Action: Stimulates thyroid to produce thyroid hormone
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Source: Anterior Pituitary
Action: Stimulates ovulation in females; testosterone synthesis in males
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Source: Anterior Pituitary
Action: Stimulates follicle maturation in females; spermatogenesis in males
Oxytocin
Source: Hypothalamus; stored in posterior pituitary
Action: Stimulates uterine contractions during labor, and milk secertion during lactation
Vasopressin (ADH)
Source: Hypothalamus; stored in posterior pituitary
Action: Stimulates water reabsorption in kidneys
Thyroid hormone
Source: Thyroid
Action: Stimulates metabolic activity
Calcitonin
Source: Thyroid
Action: Decreases the blood calcium level
Parathyroid hormone
Source: Parathyroid
Action: Increases the blood calcium level
Glucocorticoids
Source: adrenal cortex
Action: Increases blood glucose level and decreases protein synthesis
Mineralocorticoids
Source: adrenal cortex
Action: Increasea water reabsorption in the kidneys
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Source: adrenal medulla
Action: Increases blood glucose level and heart rate
Glucagon
Source: Pancreas
Action: Stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver; increases blood glucose
Insulin
Source: Pancreas
Action: Lowers blood glucose and increase storage of glycogen
Somatostatin
Source: Pancreas
Action: Suppresses secretion of glucagon and insulin
Testosterone
Source: Testis
Action: Maintains male secondary sexual characteristics
Estrogen
Source: Ovary/placenta
Action: Maintains female secondary sexual characteristics
Progesterone
Source: Ovary/placenta
Action: Promotes growth/maintenance of endometrium
Melatonin
Source: Pineal
Action: Unclear in humans
Atrial natriuretic hormone
Source: Heart
Action: Involved in osmoregulation
Thymosin
Source: Thymus
Action: Stimulates T lymphocyte development
Peptide hormone
- surface receptors
- generally acy via secondary messengers
Steroid hormone
- intracellular receptors
- hormone/receptor binding to DNA promotes transcription of specific genes
Erythropoietin
Source: kidney
Action: in response to decreased renal oxygen levels and stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs
Renin
Source: kidney
Action: enzyme secreted and involved in regulation of aldosterone secretion
Oral contraceptive pills
- estrogen/progesterone preparations
- block conception by inhibiting LH and FSH release thereby inhibiting ovulation
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
- produced by blastocyst and developing placenta
- preserves corpus luteum to maintain estrogen and progesterone secretion (1st trimester)
placenta
- secretes estrogen and progesterone by itself as HCG levels decline (2nd trimester)
hypothalamic-hypophyseal protal system
- blood from capillary bed in hypothalamus flows through protal vein into the anterior pituitary, where it diverges into a second capillary network
- allows for releasing hromones to immediately reach anterior pituitary
Six hormones of the anterior pituitary
"FLAT PEG"
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH

Prolactin
Endorphins
GH
osmoreceptors
- in hypothalamus
- detects plasma osmolarity increase signaling secretion of ADH
baroreceptors
- in circulatory system
- detects blood volume decreases
Ca+ levels in response to:

PTH
Calcitonin
PTH: inceases Ca2+
Calcitonin: decreases Ca2+ ("CalciTONIN tones down Ca2+)
renin-angiotensin
- renin (enzyme) converts angiotensiongen (plasma protein) to angiotensin I
- angiotensin I to angiotensin II that stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone
aldosterone
helps restore blood volume by increasing Na+ reabsorption into the blood at the kidney, leading to increase in water reabsorption
pancreas exocrine function
performed by cells that secrete digestive enzymes into small intestine
pancreas endocrine function
performed by islets of Langerhans
- alpha cells make glucagon
- beta cells make insulin
- delta cells make somatostatin
somatostatin
always inhibitory
insulin
glucagon
- insulin decreases plasma glucose
- glucagon increases plasma glucose
Menstrual cycle
- Follicular phase: follicles mature (FSH, LH)
- LH surge: triggers ovulation
- Luteal phase: ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum and secretes estrogen and progeserone to build up uterine lining in prep for implantation; LH and FSH inhibited
- If fertilization doesn't occur: corpus luteum atrophies, progesterone and esterogen levels decreases, menses (menstrual flow) occurs, and LH and FSH levels begin to rise