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54 Cards in this Set

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Name 2 types of receptors.
Membrand bound receptors and intracellular receptors.
Where are membrane bound receptors located? What type of substance binds to them? A substance binding to receptors activates the _______.
Cell membrane.

Large H2O soluable molecules.

Secondary messenger system.
Where are intracellular receptors located? What type of substance binds to them?
Cytoplasm or nucleus.

Small lipid soluable molecules.
Horomones are classified into 2 groups, lipid soluable (H2O insoluable) and H2O soluable. Name the types and some examples of lipid soluable horomones. Name the types and some examples of H2O soluable horomones.
Lipid soluable
Steroid-estrogen, testosterone, cortisol
Thyroid- T3, T4

H2O soluable
Amine-epinephrine, melatonin
Peptide/Protein-antidiuretic horomone, oxytocin, calcitonin
Eicosanoids-prostaglandins (eicosanoids are not true horomones, biologically active molecules similar to horomones but effects are more local).
What are 3 things that help regulate horomone secretion. (hint: Neg. feedback loops)
Blood levels of chemicals-glucose, Ca+2

Blood levels of horomones-sex steroids

Sympathetic nervous system
What is another name for the pituitary gland?
Hypophysis
Where is the pituitary gland located?
Inferior surface of brain. Sits in sella turcia of skull.
What structure connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
Infundibulum or infundibular stalk.
What are the two lobes of the pituitary called?
Anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis

Posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis
What helps regulate the pituitary gland?
Blood levels of horomones and the hypothalamus.
The anterior pituitary is regulated by the _________. The anterior pituitary _______ & ________ it's own horomones.
Hypothalamus

Synthesizes & secretes
What are the specialized nuclei in the hypothalamus?
Supraoptic & paraventricular nuclei
What are releasing horomones? Where are they produced, specifically?
Stimulate ant. pituitary to secrete specific horomones.

Supraoptic & paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.
What are inhibiting horomones? Where are they produced, specifically?
Inhibits ant. pituitary from secreting specific horomones.

Supraoptic & paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.
The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus release horomones into the blood at the _____________ located at the _______________. __________ carry horomones from the ___________ through the ____________ to a _____________. Releasing and inhibiting horomones exit the __________ and enter the ant. pituitary where they stimulate or inhibit release of a horomone.
Primary capillary bed; superior surface of the infundibulum; portal veins; primary capillary bed; infundibulum; secondary capillary bed; secondary capillary bed
In posterior pituitary regulation, the hypothalamus uses ______ to send horomones through the ________. The horomones are stored in the _________. The stimulates the posterior pituitary via the same ____ to secrete horomones from the ________.
Axons; infundibulum; pitucytes; axons; pitucytes.
Name three horomones secreted by the anterior pituitary.
Tropins, Human Growth horomone, Prolactin
Name 3 tropins (regulate secretory activity of other endocrine glands.)
Thyroid stimulating horomone (TSH or thyrotropin), Adrenocorticotropic horomone (ACTH or corticotropin), Gonadotropins.
What is the target tissue of Thyroid stimulating horomone (TSH)? What is its fxn? What is it regulated by?
Thyroid gland; regulate activity of thyroid gland; thyrotropin releasing horomone (TRH) and blood levels of T3 and T4.
What is the target tissue of adrenocorticotropic horomone (ACTH)? What is its fxn? What is it regulated by?
Adrenal gland cortex; stimulate adrenal gland cortex to secrete group of horomones called glucocorticoids; Corticotropin releasing horomone (CRH), blood levels of glucocorticoids, stress.
Name 2 gonadotropins.
Follicle Stimulating Horomone (FSH) and Lutenizing Horomone (LH)
What is the target tissue of Follicle stimulating horomone (FSH)? What is its fxn? What is it regulated by?
Gonads (ovaries & testes); men-spermatogenesis, women-ovarian follicle development; gonadotropin releasing horomone (GnRH), blood levels of sex steroids.
What is the target tissue of Lutenizing horomone (LH)? What is its fxn? What is it regulated by?
Gonads; women-ovulation, men-secretion of testosterone; GRH, blood levels of sex steroids
What is the target tissue of Human Growth Horomone (hGH or somatotropin)? What is its fxn? What is it regulated by?
Bone tissue, muscle tissue; alters protein metabolism (regulate amino acid uptake), alter lipid metabolism (increase fatty acid avail. for ATP production), alter carbohydrate metabolism (regualte glucose uptake); growth horomone releasing horomone (GHRH), growth horomone inhibiting horomone (GHIH), blood glucose levels
What is the target tissue of Prolactin (PL)? What is its fxn? What is it regulated by?
Mammary glands, male reproductive system; women-stimulate milk production, men-supportive; prolactin releasing horomone (PRH), prolactin inhibiting horomone (PIH)
Horomones stored in the posterior pituitary are made by the ________.
Hypothalamus
What are two horomones stored in the posterior pituitary?
Oxytocin, antidiuretic horomone (ADH or vasopressin)
What is the target tissue of oxytocin? What is it's fxn? What is it regulated by?
Mammary glands, uterus; milk secretion, uterine contraction; hypothalamus
What is the target tissue of antidiuretic horomone (ADH)? What is it's fxn? What is it regulated by?
Kidneys, blood vessels; increase H2O reabsorption in kidneys, stimulate vasoconstriction; hypothalamus, osmolarity of blood (hydration state of body)
Where is the thyroid gland located?
Anterior to larnyx & proximal to trachea
The thyroid gland is composed of two lobes connected by a band of connective tissue called _______.
the isthmus.
What is contained in the lobes of the thyroid gland? What is it?
thyroid follicles; fluid filled sacs
The wall of the thyroid follicle is composed of __________ which are _________ epithelial cells. Beneath the walls of the follicle is a fluid called _________. _________ is a precursor to ____________. Between the follicles is ___________ which contains __________.
thyroid follicular cells; simple cuboidal; colloid; thyroid horomone, thyroglobulin, enzymes, iodine; interstitial fluid; blood vessels, connective tissues, parafollicular or C-cells
Name 3 horomones of the thyroid gland.
Calcitonin, tetraiodothronine (T4 or thyroxine), triiodothyronine (T3)
What is the target tissue of calcitonin? What is it's fxn? What is it regulated by?
bone tissue, kidneys; decrease blood Ca+2 levels; blood Ca+2 levels
What is the target tissue of tetraiodothyronine (T4)? What is it's fxn? What is it regulated by?
most cells in the body; regulate cellular metabolism; TSH (thyroid stimulating horomone) from anterior pituitary, blood levels of iodide
Tetraiodothyronine or T4 can be ______ to ____. It is produced in _______ amounts than T3. Also, it is _____ active then T3.
converted; T3; larger; less
What is the target tissue of triiodothyronine (T3)? What is it's fxn? What is it regulated by?
most cells in the body; regulate cellular metabolism; TSH (thyroid stimulating horomone) from anterior pituitary, blood levels of iodide
Triiodothyronine or T3 is produced in _____ amounts then T4. It is _____ active then T4
lower; more
Production of T3 and T4

1. TSH stimulates __________ to synthesize & secrete _________ into ________. 2. The _________ remove ________ from blood. 3. The follicular cells exocytose _______ into _________. 4. ______ in colloid convert iodide into _______. 5. _____ binds with _________ to make T3 and T4. 6. TSH stimulates follicular cells to _______ T3 and T4 from ______ and secrete into __________.
1. thyroid follicular cells; thyroglobulin; colloid; 2. thyroid follicular cells; iodide; 3. iodide; colloid; 4. Enzymes; iodine; 5. Iodine; thyroglobulin; 6. pinocytose; colloid; interstitial fluid.
Where is parathyroid horomone (PTH) produced? What is it's fxn? What is it regulated by?
parathyroid gland; increases blood Ca+2 levels; blood Ca+2 levels
Describe the location and composition of the adrenal glands.
Located on superior surface of kidney; composed of 2 layers adrenal cortex (superficial) and adrenal medulla (deep)
What are horomones from the adrenal cortex collectively called? Where are they derived from?
corticosteroids or corticoids; cholesterol
Name 3 groups of corticosteroids produced by the adrenal cortex.
glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, androgens
Where are glucocorticoids produced? What is their target tissue? What is it's fxn? What is it regulated by?
adrenal cortex; most cells of the body; regulate blood glucose levels, metabolism, anti-inflammitory (ex=cortisol); ACTH, blood glucose levels, stress
Where are mineralcorticoids produced? What is their target tissue? What is it's fxn? What is it regulated by?
adrenal cortex; kidneys, exocrine glands; regulate blood miner levels (K+ & Na+) which indirectly affects blood volume and b.p. (ex=aldosterone); blood K+ & Na+ levels
Where are androgens produced? What is it's fxn?
adrenal cortex; supplement sex steroid levels in blood (androgens are weak male sex steroids)
Horomones of the Adrenal Medulla

Cells of medulla are modified _________. The medulla is regulated by the __________. It releases horomones called __________. This includes ________ and ________. The function of these horomones is to mimic and enhance the sympathetic nervous system.
neuron cell bodies; sympathetic nervous system; catecholamines; epinephrine; norepinephrine
The pancreas is located posterior to the _______ and medial to the _______. It is composed of _______ and _______ portions. The _______ portion is called ___________.
stomach; kidneys; exocrine; endocrine; endocrine; pancreatic islets
The pancreatic islets are composed of various cells, name 2.
Beta cells and alpha cells
What are beta cells? What is their target tissue? What is their fxn? What do they regulate?
insulin secreting cells; liver, adipose tiss., skeletal muscle; triggers target tiss. to remove glucose from blood and store it (adipose>triglycerides & liver, skeletal muscle>glycogen), remove amino acids from blood; blood glucose levels, blood amino acid levels, other horomones>GH, glucocorticoids, epinephirne, etc.
What are alpha cells? What is their target tissue? What is their fxn? What do they regulate?
glucagon secreting cells; adipose, liver, skeletal muscle; stimulate tgt. tiss. to release storage form of glucose (adipose>lipolysis>fatty acids & liver, muscle>glycogenesis>glucose), regulates amino acid levels in blood; blood levels of glucose & amino acids, horomones
The pineal gland is located in the ______ between the thalamus and superior colliculus. It secretes _______ for sleep and wake cycles and it also plays a role in _______.
diencephalon (midbrain); melatonin; puberty
The thymus gland is located on the superior surface of the _______. It secretes 4 horomones, primarily _____ which assists in __________.
heart; thymosin; WBC development