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9 Cards in this Set

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Why must water soluble hormones act via receptors located on the cell surface, whereas fat soluble ones act via nuclear receptors?
Water soluable hormones (amino acid derivatives and peptide hormones) are too large to pass thru cell membranes, thus can only enter cell via membrane receptors on the cell surface. Fat soluble/steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone) can simply diffuse thru cell membrane.
What is meant by the term “second messenger”? Give one example of a second messenger. Are second messengers important for water soluble hormones or fat soluble ones?
Water soluable hormone (first messanger) binds with a membrane receptor on surface of cell. This activates second messenger inside of cell. Ex. peptide hormone binds with membrane receptor which stimulates cAMP (second messenger)
How is it that the concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood at a particular time can regulate the production of additional thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland? What other factors regulate the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland?
negative feedback helps maintain more or less stable levels of thyroid hormones in the blood. (Is like heating in home) when concentration of thyroid hormones in blood is low, thyroid stimulating hormone produces more thyroid hormones.
When doctors suspect a thyroid problem in a patient, they most commonly will order a blood test to measure the levels of circulating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Given that TSH is produced by the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) rather than the thyroid gland, explain the rationale for this test.
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What are tropic hormones? Give some examples.
Regulate other endocrine glands, ex=thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone
The hypothalamus produces many hormones, some of which travel to the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), others of which travel to the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis). Give one example of the former, and two examples of the latter. For each example, describe the action of that particular hormone. Be specific.
Growth hormone (stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration) is produced and secretes by the adenohypophsis. Oxyocin (stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth) and antidiuretic hormone (promotes water reabsorption in kidneys) are examples of hormones produces in hypothalamus and travel to the neurohypophsis
Women who put their infants to the breast soon after delivery often experience uterine cramping. Explain this from an endocrinological standpoint.
Oxytocin is the hormone that stimulates ejection of milk by mammary glands and also stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth.
How do environmental changes, like pond drying or pond freezing, influence the timing of amphibian metamorphosis? In your discussion, be sure to include all hormones and all endocrine glands that are involved in this process.
Environmental cues affect the hypothalamus which releases TRH which affect the pituitary gland which stimulates prolactin (delays metamorphosis). The thyroid gland releases t4 and t3 that promote metamorphosis.
why is the timing of metamorphosis significant for amphibians?
Early metamorphosis creates small frog.