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51 Cards in this Set

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What are the lipid-soluble hormones?
steroids and thyroids
What are the water soluble hormones?
insulin, pituitary hormones, and parathyroid hormones
What path is long feedback?
hormone to hypothalamus
What path is short feedback?
hormone to pituitary gland
Two important second messengers
cAMP and calcium
Function of ACTH
regulates growth and secretion of adrenal gland. Especially effects cortisol and the androgenous steroids.
Function of MSH
Stimulates the anterior pituitary to promote secretion of melanin and lipotropin; makes skin darker
Function of somatotropic/ GH
regulates metabolic processes and growth in liver, muscle bone. increases glycogenolysis and lipid mobilization. induces formation of IGFs in liver.
Function of TSH
increases production and secretion of thyroid hormones.
Function of prolactin
milk production in breasts.
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
ACTH, MSH, GH, TSH, prolactin
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
ADH and oxytocin
Thyroid Hormones
T3 = 80-200
T4 = 4.5 -11.5 (indicator of normal function)
Calcitonin
What can insulin affect besides blood glucose?
serum K+ levels.
>insulin= >K+ into cells.
Functions of glucocorticoids
--carbohydrate metabolism
--inhibits immune and inflammatory responses
--increases erythrocytes
--increases appetite and fat deposits
Function of mineralcorticoids
--ion transport, causing Na+ retention; K+ and H+ loss
--Aldosterone most potent one
Normal Aldosterone level
occurs when normal sodium (136-145mEq) and potassium (3.5-5mEq) are present
*50-250 mg/day*
Affects of aging on Endocrine System
TSH, T3, T4 reduced
--hypothyroidism more common
--lower calcium levels...decline of parathyroids
S/S of SIADH
-fluid retention (HTN, edema, weight gain)
-dilutional hyponatremia (cramps, weakness, arrhythmias
-concentrated urine, <UOP
SIADH treatment
--treat cause--
restrict fluid (600-800 ml)
Diuretic, K+
A hyponatremic level of 130-140 causes:
thirst, impaired taste, anorexia, fatigue
A hyponatremic level of 120-130 causes:
vomiting and cramping
A hyponatremic level of less than 115 causes:
convulsions, twitching, confusion, death.
Nervous effects may not be reversible with treatment.
What are common causes of hyper ADH?
head trauma
carcinomas (esp. in lung)
medications
surgery (volume shifts)
S/S of Diabetes Insipidus
polyuria (5-20 L) & low urine spec. gravity (<1.005)
--hypernatremia, polydipsia
--constipation, weight loss
--HTN, agitation, tachycarida
--hypovolemic shock
Treatment of DI
replace fluids (strict I&O)
Desmopressin acetate-DDAVP (ADH analog)
What are disorders of the Anterior Pituitary?
gigantism and acromegaly
What are some S/S of Graves Disease (hyperthyroidism) ?
A-fib arrhythmias, DOE, high RR
--weight loss, lg. appetite
--diaphoresis, exophthalmos, goiter
--fatigue, nervousness, repro. malfunctions
Treatment of Graves disease
PTU, iodine preparations (Lugol's, e.g.), beta blockers
--radioactive iodine
--surgery, nutrition
S/S of thyroid storm
severe tachycardia, shock, hyperthermia to 105.3, seizure, coma.
Death within 48 hrs.
Causes of hypothyroidism include:
--radioactive iodine
--destruction, removal, or injury to thyroid gland.
--dietary iodine deficiency
--atrophy of thyroid gland (very common in U.S.)
--due to elevated TSH but target organ failure
What is a secondary (rarer) cause of hypothyroidism?
inadequate excretion of TSH due to pituitary disease or hypothalmic failure
--due to low TSH
S/S of hypothyroidism
*think opposite of hyperthyroidism*
insidious...weight gain, low temps, fatigue, edema (myxedema), thin hair, dry skin
What is myxedema coma?
Severe hypothyroidism--
LOC, hypothermia w/out shivering, hypoventilation, lactic acidosis, hypotension, hypoglycemia
What are three causes of hyperparathyroidism?
primary: benign neoplasm in gland
secondary: underlying cause of hypocalcemia
tertiary: hyperplasia of gland
S/S of hyperparathyroidism correlate with what deficiency?
hypercalcemia
--HTN, dysrhythmias, constipation
--pain, incoordination, confusion, headache
--osteoporosis
--kidney stones
--decreased deep reflexes
What is the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism?
removal/injury to gland during neck surgery.
S/S of hypoparathyroidism:
symptoms of hypocalcemia:
--tetany, <cardiac contraction
--Abdominal cramps, constricted throat
--dry skin, bone deformities
What are some causes of Cushing's Disease?
excess corticoids (esp. glucos-)from:
--Prednisone
--ACTH secreting pituitary tumor
--adrenal tumor or hyperplasia
S/S of Cushing's Syndrome:
*think BOHEMI
Buffalo hump, Obesity, EMotional disturbance, Infection

also: osteoporosis, acne, glucose intolerance
What is a pheochromocytoma?
A neoplasm (usually benign) of the adrenal medulla, producing excessive catecholamines.
--must remove tumor to treat--
What are three blood signs of DM?
1. fasting glucose at/>126
2. plasma level of OGTT >200 after two hours on two seperate days
3. random plasma level >200 plus polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria.
What is normal fasting glucose?
less than 110
What is impaired fasting glucose?
>110 but less than 126
What is impaired glucose tolerance?
>140 but less than 200
*a sign of prediabetes--normal = 70-120
What is a normal HgA1c level?
7%
What is diabetic ketoacidosis?
A complication more common in DM 1
aka: diabetic coma
fruity breath due to ketones
BG of 300-750 mg
What is HHNS?
A complication more common in DM2
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome
BG of 500-2000 mg
What are the four types of chronic complications of DM?
Neuropathies
Microvascular Disease
Macrovascular Disease
Infection
S/S of hypoglycemia
agitation, weakness, diaphoresis, hunger, shaking, dizziness
S/S of hyperglycemia
polydipsia, -phagia,and -uria
nausea, dry skin, blurred vision.