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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-represents an endocrine extension of the ?
-is attached superiorly by its ? to the ? of the ?
• in many ways represents an endocrine extension of the hypothalamus.
•It is attached superiorly by its infundibular stalk to the median eminence of the tuber cinereum (the basal hypothalamic region).
Hypophysis has 2 functional components:
•an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe
anterior lobe of the hypophysis consists of 3 derivatives of Rathke's pouch:
consists of three derivatives of Rathke’s pouch:
pars distalis
pars tuberalis
pars intermedia
pars distalis
("distal part") - the majority of the anterior pituitary
pars tuberalis
("tubular part") - a sheath extending up from the pars distalis and wrapping around the pituitary stalk
pars intermedia
("intermediate part") - sits between the bulk of the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary and is often very small in humans
posterior lobe of the hypophysis (pituitary) consists of
-and contains and produces two hormones
1. Pars nervosa
2. infundibulum

•This contains axons of neurosecretory neurons whose cell bodies lie in the para-ventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus.
•The two hormones produced are oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone).
pars nervosa of the posterior lobe of the pituitary
neurosecretory axons and their endings.
infundibulum of the posteror lobe of the pituitary
continuous with the median eminence and contains neurosecretory axons that form the hypothalamohypophy-seal tracts.
of the posterior lobed pituitary:

herring bodies are ?
that store ? and ?, but not at the same time
• Herring bodies are dilations of the pre-terminal axon containing secretion.
-ADH (regulate the body's retention of water) and oxytocin (which is In humans, oxytocin is released during orgasm in both sexes. In the brain, oxytocin is involved in social recognition and bonding, and might be involved in the formation of trust between people) are both stored in Herring bodies, but are not stored simultaneously in the same Herring body
anterior lobe of the pituitary
-contains ?
-cells that stain intensely are called ? and are either acidophils or basophils
-cells that stain less intensely are called ?
•Contains anastomosing cords of large secretory epithelial cells that contact wide fenestrated capillaries.
• Other cells, apparently with less hormone stain poorly and are called chromophobes
acidophils produce
growth hormone and prolactin (lactogenic hormone)
basophils produce
melanocyte stimulating hormone,
thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone.
-avascular or vascular ? bilobed gland located ?
-has an outer ? and an inner ?
-follicles are of ? epithelium and contain ?
• A profusely vascular (with blood vessels) bilobed gland located at the base of the larynx.
• It has an outer fascial sheath and an inner connective tissue capsule.
• Fine fibrous septa subdivide the parenchyma into poorly demarcated lobules.
• The parenchyma (The tissue characteristic of an organ, as distinguished from associated connective or supporting tissues) consists of spherical units called thyroid follicles.
• The lining of the follicles is a simple cuboidal epithelium.
• The follicles contain thyroglobulin, called colloid.
• Widely dispersed throughout the gland are rounded, slightly larger pale-staining cells known as parafollicular cells or C-cells.
• They lie internal to the follicular basement membrane, but external to follicular cells.
• They produce calcitonin.
inhibits loss of calcium from bone to the blood.
• These are four (occasionally two or six) glands along the posterior border of the lobes of the thyroid gland.
• They have a thin capsule and delicate connective tissue septa. Also present are capillaries, reticular fibers, and inconspicuous fat cells
parathyroid has
Parenchymal cells in clumps and cords, which are of two types:
•Chief cells that secrete PTH, parathyroid hormone.
•Oxyphil cells, acidophilic cells whose function is uncertain, but may be non-secretory chief cells.

-which method shows large pink staining A cells and small blue-staining B cells?
-In EM, u can see A, B, D, and F cells, which produce produce ?
• Small, irregularly shaped light-staining areas sparselly scattered among the brightly stained acini.
-many fenestrated capillaries are present
-• The Gomori method shows large pink-staining A cells and small blue-staining B cells. Other cells are also present, but are poorly distinguishable, except in EM.
-• In EM the following cells are seen: A cells, B cells, D cells, and F cells.
• These produce glucagon, insulin, somato-statin, and pancreatic polypeptide respectively
suprarenal glands-
• These glands secrete two classes of unrelated hormones, and these are:
• Steroid hormones (corticosteroids) of three different subclasses, produced by the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex.
• Catecholamine hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, produced by the suprarenal medulla.
adrenal cortex
•The fetal adrenal cortex becomes active, involutes, and is superseded by a permanent adrenal cortex.
• From capsule to medulla, the cortex is made up of three zones:
-• Zona Glomerulosa.
-• Zona Fasciculata.
-• Zona Reticularis.
zona glomerulosa of the cortex
More or less rounded groups of comparatively small secretory cells.
• Zona Fasciculata of the cortex
. The thickest zone, it consists of long slender radial columns of cells that border on long, straight fenestrated capillaries.
• Zona Reticularis of the cortex
Secretory cells arranged as anastomosing cords.
• ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland has a trophic effect on the adrenal cortex, which maintains ?
maintaining the secretory cell population and their corticosteroid secretory activity
adrenal medulla
-hormone producing cells of the a.m. are derived from ? cells from nearby developing sympathetic ganglia that migrate before birth to the adrenal glands.
• Hormone-producing cells of the adrenal medulla are derived from neural crest cells from nearby developing sympathetic ganglia that migrate before birth to the adrenal glands.
around the adrenal medullary blood vessels are ?
Anastomosing cords of pale-staining cells.
They are grouped mainly around the medullary blood vessels, where they border on wide, fenestrated capillaries.
Medullary secretary cells are known as
chromaffin cells
In EM, two types of chromaffin cells can be distinguished:
one secreting epinephrine and one secreting norepinenephrine.
what are present in the adrenal medulla
Many preganglionic sympathetic fibers are present.
-also called ?
-comprise of ?
Formerly, the “seat of the soul.”
Attached by a short stalk to the roof of the third ventricle, it is neuroectodermal in origin.
It has a thin capsule derived from the pia mater.
pineal secretory cells are called ? and they look large/small and dark/pale?
Pineal secretory cells are called pinealocytes, and are large & pale
between the pineal secretory cells are ? and ?
Between the secretory cells are capillaries and some neuroglia
in pineal gland, what are present ?
Calcified concretions (pineal sand or brain sand) are present.
The significance of the latter is unknown