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9 Cards in this Set

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What are the three major classes of hormones?
Peptide hormones, tyrosine (amino acid) derivatives, and steroid hormones
Where are peptide hormones and tyrosine derivatives synthesized, modified, and stored?
synthesized in Rough ER
modified in Golgi
stored in vesicles
Where are steroid hormones synthesized and stored?
synthesized in Smooth ER and Mitochondria
NOT stored, they are released into the blood stream (bound to albumin) as soon as they are made
Which hormones are hydrophobic?
steroid hormones are hydrophobic and thus may diffuse across membranes
Which hormones are hydrophillic?
Peptide hormones and amino acid derivatives-must bind to a cell receptor on the surface of the cell and act through secondary messenger system
What is the distinction between peptide hormones and amino acid (tyrosine) derivatives?
amino acid derivatives are created from individual amino acids (tyrosine) and contain no peptide bonds
peptide hormones are created from chains of amino acids
Why are the effects of peptide and aa hormones rapid?
they can't diffuse through cell membrane so bind to receptor which activates second messanger cAMP. A key implication of the 2nd messenger is signal amplification and modification of many EXISTING enzymes in the cytoplasm. takes minutes to hours and las brief time
Why are the effects of steroid hormones relatively slow?
steroid hormones bind to ligands, diffuse through cell membrane and into the nucleus. In the nucleus it acts as a regulator of TRANSCRIPTION-changing amount and type of proteins in the cell-takes days, last weeks
What are the 7,(8)major endocrine hormone sources, top down?
(Hypothalamus), Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, GI hormones, Adrenals, Pancreas, and Gonads (ovary females, testis (males)