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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 primary functions of the ovaries?
Oogenesis and steroidogenesis.
What are the 5 stages of follicle development?
Describe a primary follicle.
The ovum is surrounded by a single layer of granulosa cells.
Describe a secondary follicle.
The ovum is surrounded by multiple layers of granulosa cells, the theca interna has formed.
Describe the tertiary follicle
The antrum appears, the theca externa develops.
Describe the Graffian follicle.
A fluid-filled antrum is present.
What are atretic follicles?
Those that began to develop, failed to ovulate, and have begun to degenerate.
Which hormone dominates the follicular or proliferative phase?
What happens in the follicular phase to the follicles, the endometrium, and the cervix?
*the follicles grow and mature
*endometrium proliferates
*cervix secretes an elastic mucus that can facilitate the entry of sperm
On what days of the cycle is ovulation most likely to occur?
Days 14 and 15.
Which hormone dominates the luteal or secretory phase?
What happens to the endometrium during the secretory phase?
It develops coiled secretory glands and increased vascularization under the influence of progesterone.
What happens to the follicle during the luteal/secretory phase?
It turns into the corpus luteum and begins to produce progesterone and estrogen.
Name 2 systemic effects (i.e. outside of the repro system) of the rise of progesterone during the secretory phase.
1.A rise in basal temp
2.A decrease in release of LH from the ant. pituitary
Describe the sequence of events that occurs if pregnancy does not take place.
Poor LH and FSH stimulation of the corpus luteum allow it to degenerate. This decreases the level of estrogen and progesterone, causing the endometrium to be shed.
Which hormones stimulate the transition from primordial to primary follicle.
None - this occurs w/o hormone action.
How long does the transition from primary to secondary follicle take, and what hormone does it depend on?
2-3 weeks; it depends on the surge in LH that occurs at ovulation of the previous follicle.
When does the transition from secondary to tertiary and then Graffian follicle take place?
During the follicular phase from day 5 to day 14.
What kind of receptors do theca cells express? Granulosa cells? What stimulates this?
Theca: LH receptors
Granulosa: FSH receptors
This is heavily influenced by IGF-1 produced in the ovary
Theca cells produce TST. What stimulates this? What happens to the TST?
LH stimulates TST production. TST passes to the granulosa cells where (under FSH stimulation) it is converted to estrogens.
What non-androgen hormone do the graulosa cells produce? What is its fxn?
Inhibin - it inhibits the release of FSH from the anterior pituitary.
LH stimulation causes the granulosa cells to produce a hormone during the late follicular phase - what is it?
What are the effects of estrogen on the anterior pituitary?
It creates a positive feedback loop that generates the pre-ovulatory surge in LH and FSH.
How does OC work?
It contains synthetic progesterone and estrogen which exert negative feedback on the anterior pituitary and prevent the release of LH and FSH, thus preventing ovulation.