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183 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Adrenal cortex derives from what embryonic tissue?
Mesoderm
The Adrenal medulla derives from what embryonic tissue?
Neural creast
The Adrenal Zona Glomerulosa produces what?
Aldosterone
The Adrenal Zona Fasciculata produces what?
Cortisol, and some sex hormones
The Adrenal Zona Reticularis produces what?
Sex hormones (androgens)
The Adrenal Medulla produces what?
Catecholamines (Epinephrine and Norepinephrine)
What do beta islet cells produce?
Insulin
What do alpha islet cells produce?
Glucagon
What do delta islet cells produce?
Somatostatin
What is the neurohypophysis?
Posterior pituitary
What is the adenohypophysis?
Anterior pituitary
What is the posterior pituitary derived from?
Neuroectoderm
What is the anterior pituitary derived from?
Oral ectoderm
What anterior pituitary cells are acidophils?
The ones that produce GH or prolactin
What anterior pituitary cells are basophils?
"B-FLAT"
The ones that produce FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
What hormones share a common alpha-subunit?
TSH, LH, FSH and hCG
What regulates TSH release?
Increased by TRH
Decreased by Somatostatin
What regulates Prolactin release?
Increased by TRH
Decreased by Dopamine
What regulates ACTH release?
Increased by CRH
What regulates GH release?
Increased by GHRH
Decreased by Somatostatin
What regulates FSH release?
Increased by GnRH
What regulates LH release?
Increased by GnRH
What is the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
21-beta-hydroxylase deficiency
How many carbons do mineralocorticoids have?
21 carbons
How many carbons do glucocorticoids have?
21 carbons
How many carbons do androgens have?
19 carbons
How many carbons do estrogens have?
18 carbons
Where is PTH secreted from?
Chief cells of parathyroid
What is the active form of Vitamin D
1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D
What is the inactivated form of Vitamin D
24,25-(OH)2 vitamin D
How is Vitamin D activated?
The liver converts Vitamin D to 25-OH Vitamin D(storage form) and the kidney then converts it to 1,25(OH) Vitamin D
What is the storage form of Vitamin D?
25-OH Vitamin D
Where is calcitonin secreted from?
Parafollicular cells(C cells) of thyroid
What is the role of calcitonin?
Oppose the actions of PTH
Secreted when serum Ca increases and it decreases bone resorption of calcium
What hormones are steroid hormones?
"PET CAT"
Progesterone, Estrogen, Testosterone, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Thyroxine and T3
Secretion and cell type of:
Somatotrope cells
Secretes GH
Acidophil
Secretion and cell type of:
Mammotrope cells
Secretes Prolactin
Acidophil
Secretion and cell type of:
Corticotrope cells
Secretes ACTH
Basophil
Secretion and cell type of:
Gondadotrope cells
Secretes LH & FSH
Basophil
Secretion and cell type of:
Thyrotrope cells
Secretes TSH
Basophil
What is the main form of thyroid hormone secreted by the thyroid?
T4-Tetraiodothyronine
What is the most active form of thyroid hormone?
T3-Triiodithyronine
What condition leads to increased Thyroxine-binding globulin(TBG)?
Pregnancy
Increased estrogen leads to increased TBG
What condition leads to decreased Thyroxine-binding globulin(TBG)?
Hepatic failure
What is Conn's syndrome?
Primary hyperaldosteronism- an aldosterone secreting tumor
What is the most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults?
Pheochromocytoma
What is the most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children?
Neuroblastoma
What is a/w pheochromocytomas?
Neurofibromatosis, MEN types II & III
What is Wermer's syndrome?
MEN type I
What is Sipple's Syndrome?
MEN type II
Which type of MEN?
Pancreatic, parathyroid & pituitary tumors
MEN type I
Which type of MEN?
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pheochromocytoma & parathyroid tumors
MEN type II
Which type of MEN?
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pheochromocytoma, & oral & intestinal ganglioneuromatosis
MEN type III
Which thyroid cancer?
Most common
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Which thyroid cancer?
"Ground-glass" nuclei
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Which thyroid cancer?
From parafollicular "C cells"
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
Which thyroid cancer?
Produces calcitonin
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
Which thyroid cancer?
a/w MEN types II & III
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
Which thyroid cancer?
usually only in older patients
Undifferentiated/anaplastic cancer of the thyroid
Which thyroid cancer?
a/w Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Lymphoma of the thyroid
ret gene mutations are a/w what?
MEN types II & III
Type I or Type II DM?
Viral or Immune destruction of beta-cells
Type I DM
Type I or Type II DM?
a/w HLA-DR3 & DR4
Type I DM
Type I or Type II DM?
Ketoacidosis more common
Type I DM
Type I or Type II DM?
"Classic" symptoms of Diabetes more common
Type I DM
Classic symptoms-polyuria, polydipsia, thirst, weight loss
Type I or Type II DM?
a/w obestity
Type II DM
Type I or Type II DM?
Strong genetic predisposition
Type II DM
What drug class?
Lispro
Insulin- short acting
What drug class?
NPH
Insulin-intermediate acting
What drug class?
Lente
Insulin-long acting
What drug class?
Tolbutamide
First generation sulfonylurea
What drug class?
Chlorpropamide
First generation sulfonylurea
What drug class?
Glyburide
Second generation sulfonylurea
What drug class?
Glimepiride
Second generation sulfonylurea
What drug class?
Glipizide
Second generation sulfonylurea
What drug class?
Metformin
Biguanides
What drug class?
Pioglitazone
Glitazones
What drug class?
Rosiglitazone
Glitazones
What drug class?
Acarbose
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
What drug class?
Miglitol
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
What diabetes drug type is:
Lispro
Short-Acting Insulin
What diabetes drug type is:
Insulin
Short-Acting Insulin
What diabetes drug type is:
NPH
Intermediate-Acting Insulin
What diabetes drug type is:
Lente
Long-Acting Insulin
What diabetes drug type is:
Ultralente
Long-Acting Insulin
What diabetes drug type is:
Tolbutamide
First generation sulfonylurea
What diabetes drug type is:
Chlorpropamide
First generation sulfonylurea
What diabetes drug type is:
Glyburide
Second generation sulfonylurea
What diabetes drug type is:
Glimepiride
Second generation sulfonylurea
What diabetes drug type is:
Glipizide
Second generation sulfonylurea
What diabetes drug type is:
Metformin
Biguanide
What diabetes drug type is:
Pioglitazone
Glitazones
What diabetes drug type is:
Rosiglitazone
Glitazones
What diabetes drug type is:
Acarbose
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
What diabetes drug type is:
Miglitol
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
What structure contains the ovarian vessels?
Suspensory ligament of ovaries
What structure contains the uterine vessels?
Transverse cervical(cardinal)
ligament
What structure contains the round ligament of the uterus & the uterine tubules & vessels
Broad ligament
What does the acrosome of sperm derive from?
Golgi apparatus
What is the food supply of sperm?
Fructose
What kind of DNA do Spermatogonium have?
2N diploid
What kind of DNA do Primary spermatocyte have?
4N diploid
What kind of DNA do Secondary spermatocyte have?
2N haploid
What kind of DNA do Spermatid have?
1N haploid
What course do sperm take from production to ejaculation?
SEVEN UP
Seminiferous tubules, Epididymis, Vas deferens, Ejaculatory ducts, (Nothing), Urethra, Penis
FSH stimulates which cells in the male?
Sertoli cells
Aid in development of sperm
FSH stimulates which cells in the female?
Granulosa cells
Aromatization of androgens
LH stimulates which cells in the male?
Leydig cells
Testosterone release
LH stimulates which cells in the female?
Thecal cells
Produces androgens
Which cell, leydig or sertoli, is found in interstitium between seminiferous tubules?
Leydig cells
Which cell, leydig or sertoli, is found in the seminiferous tubules at the edge of the basement membrane?
Sertoli cells
What converts testosterone to DHT?
5-alpha-reductase
What inhibits 5-alpha-reductase?
Finasteride
Blocks conversion of testosterone to DHT
What is the most potent androgen?
Dihydrotestosterone(DHT)
Which androgen cannot be aromatized to an estrogen?
DHT
Both Testosterone and androstenedione can be converted to estrogens
Which is the most potent estrogen?
Estradiol
Which estrogen increases the most during pregnancy?
Estriol
In what stage of the cell cycle do eggs arrest in for most of their life?
Prophase of meiosis I
In what stage of the cell cycle do eggs arrest in after ovulation and until fertilization?
Metaphase of meiosis II
How many days after fertilization does hCG become detectable in the urine?
8 days
What is a/w Epispadias?
Exstrophy of the bladder
What is the genotype of a complete mole?
46, XX w/ all genes coming from the father
What is the genotype of an partial mole?
Usually triploid
What strains of HPV are a/w cervical dysplasia?
16 & 18
Which ovarian tumor:
Equivalent to male seminoma
Dysgerminoma
Which ovarian tumor:
Sheets of uniform cells
Dysgerminoma
Which ovarian tumor:
Aggresive malignancy in ovaries & sacrococcygeal area of young children
Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor
Which ovarian tumor:
Large, hyperchromatic syncytiotrophoblastic cells
Choriocarcinoma
Which ovarian tumor:
90% of ovarian germ cell tumors
Teratoma
Which ovarian tumor:
Contains cells from 2 or 3 germ layers
Teratoma
Which ovarian tumor:
May contain struma ovarii
Teratoma
Struma ovarii- contains functional thyroid tissue
Which ovarian tumor:
20% of ovarian tumors
Serous cystadenoma
Which ovarian tumor:
50% of ovarian tumors
Serious cystadenocarcinoma
Which ovarian tumor:
Frequently bilateral & lined w/ fallopian tube-like epithelium
Serous cystadenoma
Which ovarian tumor:
Multilocular cyst lined by mucus-secreting epithelium
Mucinous cystadenoma
Which ovarian tumor:
a/w Pseudomyxoma peritonei
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
Which ovarian tumor:
Resembles bladder epithelium
Brenner tumor
Which ovarian tumor:
Bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts
Ovarian fibroma
Which ovarian tumor:
Part of Meig's syndrome
Ovarian fibroma
Meig's syndrome- triad of ovarian fibroma, ascites & hydrothorax
Which ovarian tumor:
Can lead to precocious puberty
Granulosa cell tumor
Which ovarian tumor:
Secretes estrogen
Granulosa cell tumor
Which ovarian tumor:
Can cause endometrial hyperplasia/carcinoma in adults
Granulosa cell tumor
Which ovarian tumor:
Call-exner bodies
Granulosa cell tumor
Call-exner bodies- small follicles filled w/ eosinophilic secretions
What is Pseudomyxoma peritonei
intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material from ovarian or appendiceal tumor
a/w Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
What breast condition?
Most common tumor in women under 25
Fibroadenoma
What breast condition?
Lump w/ increased size and tenderness w/ pregnancy
Fibroadenoma
What breast condition?
Benign tumor of lactiferous ducts
Intraductal papilloma
What breast condition?
Presents w/ serous or bloody nipple discharge
Intraductal papilloma
What breast condition?
Large, bulky mass of connective tissue & cysts
Cystosarcoma phyllodes
What breast condition?
"Leaflike" projections
Cystosarcoma phyllodes
What breast condition?
Early malignancy w/o basement membrane penetration
Ductal carcinoma in situ
What breast condition?
Worst and most invasive breast cancer
Invasive ductal carcinoma
What breast condition?
Cheesy consistency due to central necrosis
Comedocarcinoma
What breast condition?
Fleshy, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrate
Medullary carcinoma
What breast condition?
Eczematous patches on nipple
Paget's disease of the breast
What breast condition?
Large cells w/ clear halo
Paget's disease of the breast
Cells are called paget cells
What breast condition?
MCC of breast lumps age 25-menopause
Fibrocystic disease
What breast condition?
Diffuse breast pain & multiple lesions, often bilateral
Fibrocystic disease
What breast condition?
Increased number of epithelial cell layers in terminal duct lobule
Epithelial hyperplasia- Fibrocystic disease
What breast condition?
Increased acini & intralobular fibrosis
Sclerosing type of Fibrocystic disease
What breast condition?
Hyperplasia of breast stroma
Fibrosis type of Fibrocystic disease
What breast condition?
Breast abscess during breast feeding
Acute mastitis
What breast condition?
Benign painless lump that forms due to injury to breast tissue
Fat necrosis
Risk factors for Breast tumors
Gender, age, early 1st menarche(<12 y.o.), delayed 1st pregnancy(>30 y.o.), late menopause(>50 y.o.), family history of 1st degree relative w/ breast cancer at young age
Most common pathogen in acute mastitis
Staphylococcus aureus
What testicular tumor?
Painless testicular enlargement
Seminoma
What testicular tumor?
Most common testicular tumor
Seminoma
What testicular tumor?
Worst prognosis
Embryonal carcinoma of the testicle
What testicular tumor?
Reinke crystals
Leydig cell tumor
What testicular tumor?
Androgen producing tumor
Leydig cell tumor
What testicular tumor?
Causes gynecomastia in men & precocious puberty in boys
Leydig cell tumor
What testicular tumor?
Androblastoma from sex cord stroma
Sertoli cell tumor
What testicular tumor?
Most common testicular cancer in older men
Testicular lymphoma
What is the typical age of presentation of a seminoma?
15-35 years old
What penile tumor?
Solitary crusty plaque on shaft or on scrotum
Bowen disease- type of penile carcinoma in situ
What penile tumor?
Peak incidence in 5th decade of life
Bowen disease- type of penile carcinoma in situ
What penile tumor?
Becomes invasive SCC in <10% of cases
Bowen disease- type of penile carcinoma in situ
What penile tumor?
Red velvety plaques, usually involving the glans
Erythroplasia of Queyrat- type of penile carcinoma in situ
What penile tumor?
Similar to Bowen disease
Erythroplasia of Queyrat- type of penile carcinoma in situ
What penile tumor?
Multiple papular lesions
Bowenoid papulosis- type of penile carcinoma in situ
What penile tumor?
Affects a younger age group than other penile tumors
Bowenoid papulosis- type of penile carcinoma in situ
What penile tumor?
a/w HPV
Penile squamous cell carcinoma
What penile tumor?
Rare in circumcised men
Penile squamous cell carcinoma