Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/149

Click to flip

149 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adren/o
adrenal
adrenal/o
gland
hypophys/o
pituitary gland
oophor/o
ovary
ovari/o
ovary
orch/o
testis
orchi/o
orchid/o
testis
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid gland
pituitar/o
pituitary gland
thym/o
thymus gland
thyroaden/o
thyroid
thyroid/o
gland
diabetologist ****ALL
doctor specializes in people with diabetes
endocrinologist
doctor specializes in glandular and hormonal illnesses
nephrologist
doctor treats people with kidney problems
urologist
doctor treats urinary tract problems---men with problems of genital organs impotence
glands in endocrine sytem and hormoses secrete influence
practically every cell, organ, and function of body
chemical messengers
hormones
hormones transfer
info instructions from one set of cells to another
hormones regulate
mood growth and develpment tissue function metabolism sexual function pregnancy and reproductive processes
endocrine system
ductless endocrine glands secrete chemicals hormones circulate via bloodstream NOT EXOCRINE GLANDS SALIVARY SWEAT AND GI GLANDS
endocrinologist
diagnose diseases affect your glands involve many systems and structures within body
endocrine system is*****
system of glands GLANDS are ORGANS MAKE HORMOSES
hormones control
reproduction metabolism food burning waste elimination growth development the way you respond to surroundings provide proper amount of energy and nutrition
endocrine glands include
thyroid parathyroid pancreas ovaries testess adrenal pituitary and hypothalamus
what do endocrinologists do
recognize and uncover hormone problems help restore natural balance of hormones in system
endocrinologists
conduct research to learn secrets of glands they develop new drugs and treatments for hormone problems
problems endorinologists take care of
diabetes thyroid diseases metabolism hormonal imbalances menopause osteoporosis hypertension cholesterol(lipid)disorders infertiltiy and birth control shortness short stature cancers of the glands
most common endocrine diseases and disorders
diabetes pediatric disorders thyroid reproductive menstrual disorders
diabetes
too much sugar in blood blood sugar control prevents problems from diabetes
problems in eyes kidneys and nerves lead to blindness dialysis amputation treatment diet meds insulin
thyroid****
problems with energy levels muscle strength emotions weight control tolerating heat cold treatment rplacing thyroid hormone also thyroid growths or cancer swollen thyroid glands
bone
osteomalacia rickets soft bones osteoporosis weakens skeleton hormones protect bone tissues hormone levels drop bones lose tissue weaken menopause loss of testicle function aging risk for bone breaks disorders too much parathyroid hormone
reproduction/infertility
1 in 10 american couples infertile endocrinologists diagnose ant treat precise hormone imblance causes infertilty assess and treat reproductive problems glands hormone replacement menopause symptoms irregtular periods endometriosis polcystic ovary syndrome premenstrual sydrome impotence
obesity and overweight
thyroid adrenal ovarian and pituitary disorders cause obesity insulin resistance and gentetic problems
Pituitary gland
master gland controls other glands makes several vital hormones over or under production lead to infertiltiy menstrual disorders growth disorders acromegaly (short) too much cortisol Cushing's syndrom meds
growth
pediatric endorinologist treat kids problems short growth problems now safe and effective treatments available for abnormal growth
hypertension
high blood pressure risk factor heart disease 10% have hypertension too much ALDOSTERONE hormone in adrenal glands half of cases caused by growths can be removed with surgery

metabolic syndrome or a frowth called pheochromoctyoma may cause hypertension can be treated
Lipid disorders
trouble maintaining normal levels of body fats HYPERLIPIDEMIA high levels of total cholesterol low density lipoprotein bad and/or triglycerides in blood linked to heart and blood vessel (coronary heart) disease strokes others
hypertension common lipid disorders higher risk coronary heart disease
lipid disorders hypothyroidism drug use, steroid, genetic metabolic conditions
lipid disorders conditions require special management metabolic syndrome polycystic ovary syndrome obesity

special diets exercise meds estrogenreplacement therapy manage hyperlipidemia and others
endocrine system's effects on body and message-sending hormones influence
operations of all body's tissues and organ systems
compared to nervous system, but less rapid and longer-lasting manner regulaitng slower processes metabolism and cell growth
hormones circulate throughout
bloodstream
each hormone affects
target cells genetically programmed to receive and drespond to message
hormone leverls vary and can be influenced by
stress infection changes in balance of fluid and minerals in blood
a gland is*****
group of cells produces and secretes chemicals into body
glands remove
materials from blood concentrates or alters them secretes finished chemical product for use somewhere in body
some glands release
secretions to specific areas
exocrine glands8*****8
sweat salivary target skin or inside of mouth
endocrine glands
release more than 20kionds of chemical messengers or hormones into bloodsteam transported to exert effects on cells in areas of body distant from gland
major glands make up endocrine system are*****
hypothalamus pituitary thyroid parathyroids adrenals pineal body and reproductive glands ovaries and testes also pancreas
exocrine part of pancreas also produces and secretes
digestive enzymes into intestine
nonendocrine organs
brain *****heart lungs kidneys liver thymus skin placenta
produce and release hormones
hypothalamus8***
collection of specialized cells located in lower central part of brain primary link between endocrine and nervous system
nerve cells in hypothalamus control
pituitary gland
producing chemicals stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from pituitary****
pituitary gland is
no bigger than a pea located at base of brain beneath hypothalamus considered most important part of endocrine system
pituitary gland called***
master gland GROWTH
makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands
production and secretion of pituitary hormones influenced by
emotions seasonal changes
hypothalamus relays info sensed by brain (environmental temperature light exposure patterns and feelings) to pituitary
piuitary divided into two parts
anterior lobe***** and posterior lobe
anterior lobe regulates
activity of thyroid adrenals and reproductive glands produces growth hormone stimulates growth of bone and body tissues role in body's handling of carbs fats protein and minerals
prolactin activates milk production in women thyrotropin stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones and corticotropin stimulates adrenal gland produce cortisol and others
pituitary secretes
endorphins
endorphins
chemicals act on nervous system reduce sensitivity to pain hormones signal ovaries and testes make sex hormones control ovulation and menstrual cycle
posterior lobe of pituitary releases
antidiuretic hormone helps control body water balance effect on kidneys and urine output and doxytocin triggers contractions in uterus occur during labor
LIST OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND
HORMONES SECRETED in both sexes
hypothalamus
thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH******
Gonadotropin-" GnRH
Growth hormone-" GHRH
Coritcotropin-" CRH
Somatostatin
Dopamine********
pituitary gland anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
GH human groth hormone
PRL prolactin********
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone
FSH follicle stimulating hormone
LH luteinizing hormone
pituitary posterior lobe neurohypophysis
oxytocin*****
ADH antidiuretic hormone
pineal gland
melatonin*******
thyroid gland thyroid hormones good writeup
thyroxine***** T4
triiodothyronine T3
Calcitonin
parathyroid glands
parathyroid hormone PTH
heart
atrial-natriuretic peptide ANP
stomach ******and intestines
gastrin
secretin
cholecystokinin CCK
somatostatin
neuropeptide Y
liver
insulin-like Growth Factor
angiotensen*****
thrombopoietin
islets of Langerhans in pancreas
insulin*****
glucagon
somatostatin
adrenal glands adrenal**** cortex
glucocorticoids
mineralocorticoids
androgens testerone****
adrenal glands adrenal medulla
adrenalin epinephrine
nordrenaline norepinephine
kidney
renin ******
erythropoietin **** EPO
calcitriol
skin
calciferol vit D3******
fat cells*****
leptin
males only
testes
androgens testosterone
females only ovarian follicle
oestrogens
females
corpus luteum
progesterone
female placenta when pregnant
progesterone
human chorionic gonadotrophin HCG

END OF LIST
thyroid gland makes
hormones regulate physiological functions in body manufactures thyroid hormone regulates rate body carries on functions
release of thyroid hormones controlled by
pituitary gland
LOCATED AT BASE OF BRAIN SECRETES THYROID STIMNULATING HORMONE TSH
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE FSH
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE ACTH
PURPOSE CONTROL ACTIVITY OTHER ENDOCRINE GLANDS
THYROID OVARIES ADRENAL ETC
endocrine
pancreas pituitary andrenal parathyroid testes ovaries
thyroid located
middle of lower neck below larynx above clavicles shaped like bow tie ******
2 halves lobes right and left joined by isthmus
cannot always feel normal thyroid gland
MAIN FUNCTION REGULATE METABOLISM
parathyroids attached to
thyroid 4 tiny glands *****function together release parathyroid hormone regulates level of calcium in blood with help of calcitonin produced in thyroid
ABSOLUTE CONTROL OVER CALCIUM LEVELS
the thymus located in
upper chest***** hormone secreting organ after puberty degenerates by 40 converted into adipose tissue
adrenal glands shaped and located
one on top of each kidney triangular *****
2parts each produces set of hormones different function
STOMACH*****
PURPOSE
MAINTAIN SALT LEVELS IN BLOOD MAINTAIN BLOOD PRESURE CONTROL KIDNEY FUNCTION CONTROL FLUID CONCERNTRATIONS IN BOFDY
outer part of adrenal gland
adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids aldosterone,cortisol,adrenal androgens influence regulate salt and water balancee in body
body's response to stress metabolism immune system sexual function
inner part of adrenal glands
adrenal medulla producess catecholamines epinephrine also called adrenaline increases blood pressure and heart rate with stress
pineal body pineal gland*****
middle of brain secretes melatonin ******hormone regulates wake-sleep cycle
gonads
sex hormones ****males in scrotum testes*** hormones androgens testosterone regulate sexual development enlargement of penis height growth spurt pubic hair increases in muscle growth production of sperm
female gonads
ovaries *****located in pelvis produce eggs secrete female hormones estrogen progesterone breast growth accumulation body fat hips and thighs height growth sput pregnancy and menstruation
pancreas *****produces (in addition to others)
NEUROENDOCRINE GLANDS OF PANCREAS
PRIMARILAY DIGESTIVE ORGAN
insulin gulcagon *******hormones work together to maintain steady level of glucose (sugar) in blood keep body supplied with fuel produce and maintain stores of energy
DEEP IN STOMACH
CONTROL BLOOD SUGAR GLUCOSE METABOLISM OTHER ENDOCRINE CELLS DIGESTIVE TRACT
cardioversion
given electrical shock for arrythmia *******
FDA regulates*******
manufacture and dispensing of controlled substances
once hormone secreted travels from
endocrine gland through bloodstream to target cells
along the way
special proteins bind to some hormones carriers control amount of hormone available interact and affect target cells
target cells have receptors attract specific
hormones each hormone has its own receptor each hormone will communicate only with specific cells that possess receptors for that hormone
when hormone reaches target cell
locks onto cell's sspecific receptors and hormone-receptor combos transmit chemical instructions to inner workings of cell
hormone levels reach certain normal or necessary amount further secretion controlled by
important body mechanisms to maintain level of hormone in blood
this regulation of hormone secretion involves
hormones itself or another substance in blood related to hormone
if thyroid gland has secreted adequate amounts of thyroid hormones into blood
pituitary gland senses normal levels of thyroid hormone in bloodstream and slows down release of thyrotropin pituitary hormone stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
parathyroid hormone increases level of calcium in
blood
when blood calcium level rises
parathyroid glands sense change and decrease their secretion of parathyroid hormone
turn-off process called
negative feedback system
thyroid gland
biggest gland in neck anterior neck below skin and muscle layers
thyroid gland takes shape of
butterfly 2 wings represented by left and right thyroid lobes wrap around trachea
sole function of thyroid is
make thyroid hormone
thyroid hormone
effects nearly all tissues of body increases cellular activity
function of thyroid is to
REGULATE BODY'S METABOLISM
thyroid weighs
less than an ounce in front of neck 2 halves lobers lie along windpipe trachea joined by thyroid tissue isthmus
below adams apple or larynx
during fetal development thyroid gland originates
in back of tongue normally migrates to front of neck befrore birth
sometimes rarely located high in neck or back of tongue ligual thyroid or in chest
functiton of thyroid
take iodine from foods convert it into thykroid hormones
thyroxine T4
triiodothyronine T3
thyroid cells only cells in body absorbs
iodine cells combine iodine and amino acid tyrosine to make T3 and T4
T3 and T4 released into blood stream transported throughout body where they control
metabolism (conversion of oxygen and calories to energy)
every cell in body depends upon
thyroid hormones for regulation of metabolism
normal thyroid gland produces about
80% T4 20% T3
T3 possesses about 4 times hormone strength as
T4
thyoid gland under control of
pituitary gland (peanut sized base of brain)
when level of hormones T3-4 drops too low pituitary gland produces
thyroid stimulating hormone TSH stimulates thyroid gland produce more hormones
with TSH the thyroid will
manufacture and secrete T3-4 raising blood levels
pituitary senses and responds by
decreasing TSH production
thyroid gland like furnace
pituitarygland like thermostat
thyroid hormones like...
heat when heat reaches thermostat Pituitary turns off as room cools (thyroid homone levels drop) thermostat turns on (TSH increases) furnace produces more heat (thyroid hormones)
pituitary gland regulated by
hypothalamus gland part of brain produces TSH Realeasing Hormone TRH
TRH tells pituitary gland to
stimulate thyroid gland (release TSH)

hypothalamus equal to person who regulates the thermostat, tells pituitary gland what level thyroid should be set
hyperthyroidism Grave's disease
over-activity
hypothyroidism goiter enlarlged thyroid gland
Hashimotos's disease
under-activity
patients with radiation therapy to head or neck as children for
acne adenoids prone to develop thyroid malignancy
lumps
nodule
goiters removed for cosmetic reasons or compress other vital structures of neck
trachea and esophagus breathing and swallowing difficult sometimes grow into chest
thyroid cancer****
common malignancy but excellent long term survival
solitary thyroid ****nodules
50% of pop will have nodule in thyroid majority benign
if malignant requires needle biopsy or surgical excision
hyperthyroidism****
too much thyroid hormone
treatment radioactive iodine anti-thyroid drugs surgery sometimes all three methods appropriate surgery least common
hypothyroidism
too little thyroid hormone present many years before recognized treated
several causes even pregnancy
thyroiditis****
inflammatory process fever pain findings of hypo or hyper thyroidism
many causes
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
autoimmune chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis common type of thyroidits
De Quervain's Thyroiditis*****
subacute or granulomatous thyroiditis less common than Hashimoto's
Silent Thyroiditis*****
third and least common type of thyroiditis
1 thyroid produces T3/4
2 needs stimulation from pituitary gland TSH
3 needs stimulation from hypothalmus TSH Releasing Hormone
or
1hypothalamus TSH Releasing Hormone
2pituitary releases TSH
3 thyroid produces T3/4
radioimmunoassay techniques
measures circulating hormones ion blood
como of two or more tests usually detect slightest abnormality of thyroid function
low T4 level could mean
*****diseased thyroid gland or non-functioning ituitary gland (not stimulating)
pituitary normally releases TSH if T4 is low a high TSH level confirms
*****thyroid gland not pituitary is responsible for hypothyroidism
if T4 level low and TSH not elevated
******pituitary gland likely to be cause for hypothyroidism
If pituitary gland the is the cause could mean other problems because
pituitary gland also regulates adrenals ovaries and testicles and controlling growth in children and normal kidney finction
pituitary gland failure means
other glands may also be failing***** other treatment than just thyroid may be necessary
most common cause for pituitary gland failure is
tumor ******of pituitary might also require surgery to remove
modern measurement of thyroid hormones done by
radioimmunoassay RIA
RIA discovered by
Dr.s Solomon Berson, Rosalyn Yallow
awarded 1977 Nobel Prize in Medidcine
revolutionized study of thyroid disease and entire field of endocrinology