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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is that endocrine system
6
glands the secrete hormones

into the bloodstream

hormones go to target tissues
organs

regulated by feedback and physiologic demands
Endocrine Football
6
Hypothalmus-Coach
calls shot
releases hormones to pituitary
gland

Pituitary gland-quarterback
sends information out
sends hormones to glands

Glands-recievers
ie adrenals, thyroid,etc
what is the role of the hypothalmus
6
controls releasing hormone

releasing hormone-releases the actual hormone that goes to the gland

gland secretes what the body needs
what are examples of the glands
6
pituitary-anterior and posterior
thyroid gland
parathyroid gland
adrenal gland
pancreas
gonads
what does the anterior pituitary
gland secrete
6
growth hormone GH
thyroid stimulating hormone TSH
adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
follicle-stimulating hormone FSH
luteinizing hormone LH
melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH
prolactin
what does the posterior pitiutary
gland secrete
6
oxytocin

antidiuretic hormone
what is the function of oxytocin
6
stimulates milk secretion

stimulates uterine contractility
what is the function of antidiuretic
hormone ADH
6
promotes the reabsorption of water

vasoconstriction
what does the thyroid gland
secrete
6
thyroxine T4

triiodothyronine T3

calcitonin
what is the function of thyroxine T4
6
most active form of thyroid hormones

also most abundant

precursor to T3
what is the function of triiodothyronine T3
6
the most potent thyroid hormone

regulates the metabolic rate of all cell

hyperactive thyroid increased metabolism

hypoactive thyroid decreased metabolism
what is the function of calcitonin
6
regulates the calcium and phosphorus blood levels

decreases serum calcium levels
what do the parathyroid glands
secrete
6
parathyroid hormone PTH
what is the function of parathyroid
hormone PTH
6
1.promotes bone demineralization

2. increases intestinal absorption of calcium

=increases serum calcium levels
which normal sized gland should not be able to be palpated
6
thyroid gland
what does the adrenal medulla secrete
6
stress hormones

epinephrine

norepinephrine
what is the function of epinephrine and norepinephrine
6
flight or fight

prolongs sympathetic nervous
system response

ie increase HR
blood flow to skeletal muscle
dilates air passages
what does the adrenal cortex
secrete
6
sugar/sex/salt

glucocorticoids

androgens

mineralocorticoids
what is the function of glucocorticoids
6
cortisol
hydrocorisone

promotes metabolism

stress response
"flight or fight"
what is the function of the androgens
6
testosterone
androsterone

promotes masculinizaition in men

growth and sexual activity in women
what is the function of mineralocorticoids
6
aldosterone

regulates sodium and potassium balance
=regulates water balance
what do the pancreas
secrete
6
insulin

glucagon

somatostatin

pancreatic polypeptide
what is the function of insulin
6
promotes the movement of glucose

out of the blood and into the cells
what is the function of glucagon
6
glycogen is the storage form of glucose

glucagon changes glycogen into glucose

in the blood
what is the function of somatostatin
6
inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion
what is the function of pancreatic
polypeptide
6
digestion

regulates pancreatic function
what do the gonads secrete
woman ovaries
estrogen
progesterone

men testes
testosterone
what is the function of the female
hormones
6
estrogen sexual development
fertility

progesterone successful pregnancy
what is the function of the male hormones
6
testosterone
sexual development

spermatogenesis
what is neuroendocrine control
6
the nervous system and the endocrine system
communicate together in regulating hormones
what is the job of the hypothalamus in neuroendocrine control
6
it links the nervous and endocrine system

it also secretes the releasing and
inhibiting hormones directly to the pituitary gland
which release hormones to the target glands

it is the "coach" that makes decisions about what
needs to be done
the neuroendocrine story
6
hypothalmus releases inhibiting and releasing
hormones

inhibiting or releasing hormones act on the pituitary
gland

pituitary gland releases "tropic hormones"-pituitary
hormones

tropic hormones are released to target organs

target hormones release actual hormones
what is the feedback system of hormone regulation in the body
6
the body's hormonal system is a balanced between a state of hyperfunction and hypofunction

positive feedback loops release more hormones

negative feedback loops release no more hormones
what are some hyperfunction disorders of the anterior
pituitary gland
6
caused by benign tumor triggering body
to make excess stimulating hormone

gigantism-under 12 years old

acromegaly
what is gigantism
6
excessive secretion in children

epiphysis of the bone is still open=
bones grow longer
what is acromegaly
6
excessive secretion in adults

epiphysis of bone closed=bone
grows wider

enlargement of facial features, hands, feet and joint pain
what are hypofunction disorders of
the anterior pituitary gland
6
disorders caused by a tumor and is specific to hormones not
being secreted
what is the role of drug therapy in
hypofunction of hyperfunction of the glands
6
hypo-give drugs to stimulate
missing hormones

hyper-give drugs to suppress missing hormones
what can cause the entire pituitary gland to be removed
6
in surgery

accidentally when removing pituitary tumor
what will patient need if entire
pituitary gland removed
6
pitiutary no longer helping to regulate
hormones

oral hormone replacements to replace all
the hormones lost when pituitary gland
removed
removed
what are the collaborative treatments for anterior pituitary
disorders
6
surgery

radiation therapy

drug therapy
what are the types of surgical
treatments for anterior pituitary
gland disorders
6
transsphenoidal microsurgery

hypophysectomy

enter thru upper lip and floor of
nose to remove tumor
what is after surgery nursing care for transsphenoidal
hypophysectomy surgery
6
gentle mouth care-suture line in mouth

no teeth brushing

no coughing

no nose blowing

no straws
is there a concern about pt getting pneumonia after surgery from not using spirometry or coughing
6
no

because suture line in mouth pt will get out of bed sooner
why is radiation used in disorders of the anterior pituitary gland
6
1-to reduce size of tumor prior
to surgery

2-secondary treatment after
unsuccessful surgery
what kind of drug therapy is used
for the anterior pituitary disorders
of gigantism and acromegaly
6
hormone replacement if needed

dopamine agonist to
supress GH

octreotide(sandostatin) to decreases GH levels
what are some disorders of the
posterior pituitary
6
syndrome of inappropriate
antidiuretic hormone SIADH

diabetes insipidus DI
what is SIADH
6
hyperfunction of the posterior pituitary

ADH is released despite normal

or low plasma osmolarity
what is ADH
6
made in hypothalmus

stored in posterior pituitary

regulates water balance and
osmolarity

antidiuretic=holds onto water

normally released when plasma
osmolarity is high
what is the characteristics of high
plasma osmolarity
6
the blood is viscious/thick and needs water to be diluted
what happens when there is high
plasma osmolarity
6
posterior pituitary gland releases
ADH

the body holds onto to more water

the plasma is diluted

the plasma osmolarity decreases
what is the role of the hypothalmus in SIADH
6
secretes ADH which senses osmolality
in the bloodstream

when osmolaity high, secretes ADH
to thin blood (hold onto water)

when osmolaity is low turns off ADH
so blood thicken up (excrete water)
when is ADH released
6
by posterior pituitary

when the plasma osmolality
is high (blood is thick) so body
holds onto water to thin the blood
who is most at risk for SIADH
6
the elderly
what is SIADH characterized by
6
fluid retention
(decreased urine output)

concentrated urine
(H2O held in body)

serum hypoosmolality
(blood very thin)

dilutional hyponatremia
(diluted sodium)

blood keeps getting thinner
what are the causes of SIADH
6
small cell CA of lung

CNS disorders

drug therapy

hypothyroidism

COPD/lung infection/mech
vent
what are the diagnositic test
for SIADH
6
serum Na less than 134 mEq/L

serum osmolality less than
280 mOsm/kg

urine specific gravity greater than
1.030
what is the tell tale sign of SIADH
6
serum osmolality is less than
urine osmolality

inappropriate excretion of concentrated urine with dilute
serum

concentrated urine with dilute
blood
what is normal serum Na
6
135-145 mEq/L
what is normal serum osmolality
6
280-295 mOsm/kg
what is normal urine specific
gravity
6
1.010-1.030
what is the collaborative care
for SIADH
6
correct underlying cause

fluid restriction if Na higher than
125mEq/L

hypertonic saline solution (3%, 5%) slowly if Na less than 120 mEq/l

diuretics (lasix): monitor K
(losing more water than Na)

daily wts
what are other nursing care for SIADH
6
to manage thirst
hard candy and ice
to manage confusion from hyponatremia
safety: pad side rails
low bed
frequent pt checks
help to bathroom

strict I and O since urine output will increase
as SIADH is corrected
(excess water will be urinated out)
what is the DOC for chronic SIADH
6
demeclocycline (declomycin)

blocks the effects of ADH on renal tubules
what are the S/S of hyponatremia as a symptom
of SIADH
6
anorexia
nausea
vomiting
confusion
disorientation
seizures
what can hypo or hypernatremia lead to
6
seizures
what is diabetes insipidus
DI
6
hypofunction of the posterior
pituitary gland

deficiency in the production or secretion of ADH

can be transient or chronic

results in excessive urine
output and high plasm
osmolality
what are the causes of DI
6
tumor

head injury ie car accident
what are the S/S of DI
6
polyuria

severe polydipsia-thirst

fatigue from nocturia

change in LOC due to
hypernatremia: irritability
to coma to seizures

dehydration leading to
tachycardia and shock
what kind of shock does DI
cause
6
hypovolemic
what are the diagnostic tests
for DI
6
serum Na higher than 145mEq/L

serum osmolality greater than
295 mOsm/kg

urine specific gravity less than
1.001
what is the collaborative care for DI
6
correct underlying cause

maintain fluid and electrolyte
balance with IV therapy

check for glucosuria
what can unchecked glucosuria cause
6
osmotic diuresis due to

high blood sugar spilling into

the urine and taking water with

it
what is the DOC for hormone
replacement for hypofunction
in DI
6
vasopressin/Pitressin

SC, IM, IV
what is the DOC for chronic
DI
6
desmopressin acetate
DDAVP

nasal spray for long term
use
what is the importance of IV
fluids in DI
6
hydration

replace fluids lost in urine
output