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47 Cards in this Set

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List Four Indications for Vascular Access
Fluid or blood administration.
Medication administration.
Blood sampling.
Precautionary in a patient at risk of rapid deterioration.
Peripheral venous access
Access into peripheral veins of the arms, legs, or the external jugular vein
List at least three examples of colloids
Plasma protein fraction (Plasmanate)
Salt-poor albumin
Dextran
Hetastarch (Hespan)
Colloids
IV solutions containing large proteins. These remain in the vascular space for a longer time than crystalloids.
Why are colloids not typically used in the field?
Cost
Short shelf life
Special storage requirements
Crystalloids
IV solutions that contain electrolytes but lack larger proteins contained in colloids.
Isotonic
solutions on opposite side of a semi-permeable membrane are equal in concentration.
Hypertonic
State in which there is a higher solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane than on the other side.
Hypotonic
State in which there is a lower solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane than on the other side.
Lactated ringer's and Normal saline are considered ________________
(Isotonic, Hypertonic, or Hypotonic) compared to blood.
Isotonic
D5W is considered ________________ (Isotonic, Hypertonic, or Hypotonic) compared to blood.
Hypotonic
List at least four items that must be checked when inspecting drugs and IV solution.
Clarity--no particles should be visible.
Color--no discoloration should be present.
Packaging--should be intact and undamaged.
Expiration date.
Microdrop tubing administers ____ gtts/mL
60

60drops= 1 mL
A venous constriction band should never be left on longer than _____ minutes.
2 minutes
Large gauge catheters are defined as all catheters ______ gauge or larger.
18 gauge
The larger the gauge number, the ____________ (larger, smaller) the catheter.
smaller
A cannula gauge of ______ or larger is required for blood administration.
16 gauge or larger
The most common factor affecting IV flow rates is:
Failure to remove the IV constricting band.
Extravasation
Leakage of fluid or medications from a blood vessel.
Infiltration
Accumulation within the body tissues of blood and fluid that has escaped from a blood vessel.
List 12 complications of peripheral IV access.
Pain
Allergic reaction
Pyrogenic reaction
Infection
Catheter shear
Inadvertent arterial puncture
Circulatory overload
Thrombophlebitis
Thrombus formation
Air embolism
Necrosis
Anticoagulants increase the risk of hematoma or infiltration.
Hemoconcentration
Elevated number of red and white blood cells. Can be caused by leaving a constricting band on too long.
Hemolysis
Destruction of red blood cells. can be caused by vigorous shaking of blood tubes or using too small a catheter for blood draws.
List four contraindications to the use of intraosseous fluid administration.
Use of the IO is for unstable patients only.
Osteoporosis or osteogenesis imperfecta.
Fracture of the extremity.
Recent use of the site for IO.
Insertion through cellulitis, burns, or infection should be avoided.
Name the Six rights of Medication Administration
right person
Right drug
Right dose
Right route
Right time
Right documentation
Asepsis
the absence of pathogens
Local
limited to one area of the body
Systemic
throughout the body
Sterile
free of all microbial life
Medically clean
carefully handled to prevent contamination
Disinfectant
cleansing agent that is toxic to human tissue
Antiseptic
Cleansing agent that is not toxic to living tissue
Parenteral medication administration
outside the GI tract
Sublingual
under the tongue
Diffusion
movement of a solute (particle) from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration across a semi-permeable membrane
Osmosis
Movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher solute concentration.
Filtration
Movement of molecules across a membrane from a areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.
milli-
1/1,000
micro-
1/1,000,000
1 kilogram = ________ pounds
2.2 pounds
37 degrees celcius = ________ degrees fahrenheit
98.6
The formula to convert celcius to fahrenheit is:
Celcius = 5/9 (Fahrenheit-32)
The formula to convert fahrenheit to celcius is:
Fahrenheit = 9/5 Celsius +32
The mechanism of action for albuterol is:
B2 selective agonist
The major precaution for the administration of albuterol is:
cardiac ischemia
When possible, before administering albuterol, you should measure the patients:
peak flow
Name two major precautions for nitroglycerin.
Recent use of sildenafil, (Viagara) or Cialis.
Hypotension