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170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomical position
standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. Body is standing erect, facing forward with arms down, palms of hands forward.
physiology
study of body function
anatomy
study of body structure
plane
flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object
midline
an imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into right and left
medial
toward the midline of the body
lateral
to the side; away from the midline of the body
bilateral
both sides of the body
mid-axillary
line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
anterior
front of the body
posterior
back of the body
ventral
referring to the front of the body (also anterior)
dorsal
referring to the back of the body (also posterior)
superior
toward the head
inferior
away from the head
proximal
closer to the torso
distal
away from the torso
torso
trunk of the body
palmar
referring to the palm of the hand
plantar
referring to the sole of the foot
mid-clavicular line
a line through the center of each clavicle
abdominal quadrants
4 divisions of the abdomen
LUQ, RUQ, LLQ, RLQ
supine
lying on the back
recovery position
laying on the side (also lateral recumbent position)
prone
lying face down
fowler's position
sitting position
trendelenberg position
position at which patient's feet and legs are higher than the head (also shock position)
musculoskeletal system
system of bones and skeletal muscles that protect the body and permit movement
skeleton
bones of the body
muscle
tissue that contracts to allow movement of body
ligament
tissue that connects bone to bone
tendon
tissue that connects muscle to bone
skull
bony structure of the head
cranium
top, back and sides of skull
mandible
lower jaw bone
maxillae
2 fused bones forming the upper jaw
nasal bone
nose bone
orbits
boney structure around the eyes
zygomatic arches
form the structure of the cheek
vertebrae
33 bones of the spinal column
thorax
the chest
sternum
breastbone
manubrium
the superior portion of the sternum
zyphoid process
the inferior portion of the sternum
pelvis
basin shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for the lower extermities
ilium
the superior and widest portion of the pelvis
ischium
the lower posterior portion of the pelvis
pubis
the medial anterior portion of the pelvis
acetabulum
the pelvic socket in which the ball of the proximal end of the femur fits in to form the hip joint
femur
large bone of the thigh
patella
the kneecap
tibia
the medial and large bone of the lower leg
fibula
the lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
malleolus
protrusion of the side of the ankle
tarsals
ankle bones
metatarsals
foot bones
calcaneus
heel bone
phalanges
toe bones and finger bones
clavicle
collar bone
scapula
shoulder blade
acromion process
the highest portion of the shoulder
acromioclavicular joint
the joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet
humerous
the bone of the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow
radius
the lateral bone of the forearm
ulna
the medial bone of the forearm
carpals
the wrist bones
metacarpals
the hand bones
joint
the point where 2 bones come together
voluntary muscle
muscle that can be consciously controlled
involuntary muscle
responds automatically
cardiac muscle
specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart
automatcity
the ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses
respiratory system
system of nose, mouth, throat, lungs and muscles; brings oxygen to the body and expels carbon dioxides
oropharynx
area directy posterior to the mouth
nasopharynx
area directly posterior to the nose
pharynx
the area directly posterior to the nose and mouth; made up of oropharynx and nasopharynx
epiglottis
leaf-shaped structure that prevents food and foreigh matter from entering trachea
larynx
voice box
crichoid cartilage
the ring shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx
trachea
wind pipe; the structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs
lung
organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place
bronchi
2 large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs, right and left, (singular: bronchus)
alveoli
microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange with bloodstream takes place
diaphragm
muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity; major muscle of respiration
inhalation
active process in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphragm contract, expanding to the size of the chest cavity
exhalation
passive process in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and disphragm relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease
cardiovascular system
system made up of heart and blood vessels (also circulatory system)
atria
2 upper chambers of the heart
ventricles
2 lower chambers of the heart
venae cavae
the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava, 2 major veins return blood from the body to the right atrium
valve
a structure that opens and closes to permit the flow of a fluid in one direction
cardiac conduction system
system of specialized muscle tissues which conduct electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat
artery
any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
coronary arteries
blood vessels that supply the muscles of the heart
aorta
largest artery in the body; transports blood from left ventricle to begin systematic circulation
pulmonary arteries
the vessels that carry blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs
carotid arteries
large neck arteries; one on each side that carry blood from the heart to the head
femoral artery
major artery supplying the leg
brachial artery
artery of the upper arm
radial artery
artery of the lower arm
posterior tibial artery
artery supplying the foot behind the medial ankle
dorsalis pedis artery
artery supplying the foot lateral to the large tendon of the big toe
arteriole
smallest kind of artery
capillary
thin-walled microscopic blood vessel where the oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrient waste exchange with the body's cells take place
venule
smallest kink of vein
vein
any blood vessel returning blood to the heart
pulmonary veins
vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
plasma
fluid portion of the blood
red blood cells
components of the blood that carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells
white blood cells
components of the blood that produce substances that help the body fight infection
platelets
components of the blood; membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells
pulse
a rhymic beats caused as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries
peripheral pulses
the radial, bronchial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral or outlying points of the body
central pulses
the carotid and femoral pulses which can be felt in the central part of the body
blood pressure
the pressure caused by blood exerting force against the walls of blood vessels
systolic blood pressure
the pressure created in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts and forces blood into circulation
diastolic blood pressure
the pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling
perfusion
the supply of oxygen to and removal of waste from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of flow of blood through the capillaries
hypoperfusion
inadequate perfusion of the cells and tissues of the body caused by insufficient flow of blood through the capillaries aka shock
nervous system
the system of brain, spinal cord and nerves that govern sensation, movement and thought
ilium
the superior and widest portion of the pelvis
ischium
the lower posterior portion of the pelvis
pubis
the medial anterior portion of the pelvis
acetabulum
the pelvic socket in which the ball of the proximal end of the femur fits in to form the hip joint
femur
large bone of the thigh
patella
the kneecap
tibia
the medial and large bone of the lower leg
fibula
the lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
malleolus
protrusion of the side of the ankle
tarsals
ankle bones
metatarsals
foot bones
calcaneus
heel bone
phalanges
toe bones and finger bones
clavicle
collar bone
scapula
shoulder blade
ilium
the superior and widest portion of the pelvis
ischium
the lower posterior portion of the pelvis
pubis
the medial anterior portion of the pelvis
acetabulum
the pelvic socket in which the ball of the proximal end of the femur fits in to form the hip joint
femur
large bone of the thigh
patella
the kneecap
tibia
the medial and large bone of the lower leg
fibula
the lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
malleolus
protrusion of the side of the ankle
tarsals
ankle bones
metatarsals
foot bones
calcaneus
heel bone
phalanges
toe bones and finger bones
clavicle
collar bone
scapula
shoulder blade
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord and travel between the brain and organs without passing through the spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
the division of peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor functions
digestive system
system in which food travels through the body and is digested or broken down into absorbable forms
stomach
muscular sac between the espohagus and the small intestine where digestion of food begins
small intestine
the muscular tube between the stomache and large intestine which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion; nutrients are absorbed by the body through its walls
large intestine
the muscular tube that removes water from waste products received from the small intestine and moves anything not absorbed by the body toward excretion from the body
liver
the largest organ of the body; produces bile to assist in breakdown of fat and assists in the metabolism of various substances in the body
gall bladder
a sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile produces by the liver
pancreas
gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine
divisions of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum and ileum
spleen
organ located in the LUQ of the abdomen that acts as a bllod filtration system and reservoir for reserves of blood
appendix
small tube located near the junction of the small and large intestines in the RLQ of the abdomen
skin
layer of tissue between the body and external environment
epidermis
outer layer of skin
dermis
the inner layer of skin rich in blood vessels and nerves
subcutaneous layers
layers of fat and soft tissues found below the dermis
endocrine system
system of glands that produce chemicals called hormones that help to regulate many body activities and functions
insulin
a hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as medication by many diabetics
epinephrine
a hormone produced by the body as a medication it dialates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reactions