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174 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
A&O
alert and oriented
A&Ox4 - alert to person, place, time, and event(s)
¯a
before
¯c
with
¯p
after
¯q
every
¯s
without
abd.
abdomen
AMA
against medical advice
ant.
anterior
ASA
aspirin
b.i.d.
twice a day
BM
bowel movement
BP
blood pressure
BS
blood sugar
BSA
body surface area
c/o
complains of
CC or C/C
chief complaint
CHF
congestive heart failure
Heart failure (HF) often called congestive heart failure (CHF) is generally defined as the inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the needs of the body.[1][2][3] Heart failure can cause a number of symptoms including shortness of breath, leg swelling, and exercise intolerance. The condition is diagnosed with echocardiography and blood tests. Treatment commonly consists of lifestyle measures (such as smoking cessation, light exercise including breathing protocols, decreased salt intake and other dietary changes) and medications. Sometimes it is treated with implanted devices (pacemakers or ventricular assist devices) and occasionally a heart transplant.

Common causes of heart failure include myocardial infarction and other forms of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.[4] The term "heart failure" is sometimes incorrectly used to describe other cardiac-related illnesses, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cardiac arrest, which can cause heart failure but are not equivalent to heart failure.

Heart failure is a common, costly, disabling, and potentially deadly condition.[4] In developed countries, around 2% of adults suffer from heart failure, but in those over the age of 65, this increases to 6–10%.[4][5]
CNS
central nervous system
CO
carbon monoxide
CO2
carbon dioxide
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD), is the co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed.[1] This leads to a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs, causing shortness of breath (dyspnea). In clinical practice, COPD is defined by its characteristically low airflow on lung function tests.[2] In contrast to asthma, this limitation is poorly reversible and usually gets progressively worse over time. In England, an estimated 842,100 of 50 million people have a diagnosis of COPD.[3]

COPD is caused by noxious particles or gas, most commonly from tobacco smoking, which triggers an abnormal inflammatory response in the lung.[4]

The diagnosis of COPD requires lung function tests. Important management strategies are smoking cessation, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and drug therapy (often using inhalers). Some patients go on to require long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.[4]
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
A stroke, also known as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage (leakage of blood).[1] As a result, the affected area of the brain cannot function, which might result in an inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or an inability to see one side of the visual field.[2]

A stroke is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and death. It is the leading cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe and the second leading cause of death worldwide.[3] Risk factors for stroke include old age, hypertension (high blood pressure), previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking and atrial fibrillation.[2] High blood pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke.[2]

A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms, and the patients are typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. Despite not causing identifiable symptoms, a silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future. Conversely, those who have suffered a major stroke are at risk of having silent strokes.[4] In a broad study in 1998, more than 11 million people were estimated to have experienced a stroke in the United States. Approximately 770,000 of these strokes were symptomatic and 11 million were first-ever silent MRI infarcts or hemorrhages. Silent strokes typically cause lesions which are detected via the use of neuroimaging such as MRI. Silent strokes are estimated to occur at five times the rate of symptomatic strokes.[5][6] The risk of silent stroke increases with age, but may also affect younger adults and children, especially those with acute anemia.[5][7]

An ischemic stroke is occasionally treated in a hospital with thrombolysis (also known as a "clot buster"), and some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from neurosurgery. Treatment to recover any lost function is termed stroke rehabilitation, ideally in a stroke unit and involving health professions such as speech and language therapy, physical therapy and occupational therapy. Prevention of recurrence may involve the administration of antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin and dipyridamole, control and reduction of hypertension, and the use of statins. Selected patients may benefit from carotid endarterectomy and the use of anticoagulants.[2]
D/C
discontinue
DOA
dead on arrival
DT's
delirium tremors
ETOH
alcohol
fx
fracture
GI
gastrointestinal
GSW
gun shot wound
h or hr.
hour
H/A
headache
Hx
history
ICP
intracranial pressure
IM
intramuscular
inf.
inferior
IV
intravenous
JVD
jugular venous distension
The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system. It can be useful in the differentiation of different forms of heart and lung disease. Classically three upward deflections and two downward deflections have been described.
The upward deflections are the "a" (atrial contraction), "c" (ventricular contraction and resulting bulging of tricuspid into the right atrium during isovolumetric systole) and "v" = atrial venous filling.
The downward deflections of the wave are the "x" (the atrium relaxes and the tricuspid valve moves downward) and the "y" descent (filling of ventricle after tricuspid opening).
kg
kilogram
LAC
laceration
LOC
level of consciousness
LPM
liters per minute
LR
lactated ringers
MI
myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and ensuing oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium).

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck), shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, sweating, and anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom).[1] Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue.[2] Approximately one-quarter of all myocardial infarctions are "silent", that is without chest pain or other symptoms.

Among the diagnostic tests available to detect heart muscle damage are an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac MRI and various blood tests. The most often used blood markers are the creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) fraction and the troponin levels. Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual nitroglycerin.[3]

Most cases of STEMI (ST elevation MI) are treated with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). NSTEMI (non-ST elevation MI) should be managed with medication, although PCI is often performed during hospital admission. In people who have multiple blockages and who are relatively stable, or in a few emergency cases, bypass surgery may be an option, especially in diabetics.

Ischemic heart disease (which includes myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and heart failure when preceded by myocardial infarction) was the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide in 2004.[4] Important risk factors are previous cardiovascular disease, older age, tobacco smoking, high blood levels of certain lipids (triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein) and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, excessive alcohol consumption, the abuse of certain drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamine), and chronic high stress levels.[5][6]
MOE
movement of extremities
MVC
motor vehicle collision
N/V
nausea/vomiting
NC
nasal cannula
NKDA
no known drug allergies
NPO
nothing by mouth
NS
normal saline
NTG
nitroglycerin
O2
oxygen
OD
overdose
P.E.
pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism). Usually this is due to embolism of a thrombus (blood clot) from the deep veins in the legs, a process termed venous thromboembolism. A small proportion is due to the embolization of air, fat, talc in drugs of intravenous drug abusers or amniotic fluid. The obstruction of the blood flow through the lungs and the resultant pressure on the right ventricle of the heart leads to the symptoms and signs of PE. The risk of PE is increased in various situations, such as cancer or prolonged bed rest.[1]

Symptoms of pulmonary embolism include difficulty breathing, chest pain on inspiration, and palpitations. Clinical signs include low blood oxygen saturation and cyanosis, rapid breathing, and a rapid heart rate. Severe cases of PE can lead to collapse, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.[1]

Diagnosis is based on these clinical findings in combination with laboratory tests (such as the D-dimer test) and imaging studies, usually CT pulmonary angiography. Treatment is typically with anticoagulant medication, including heparin and warfarin. Severe cases may require thrombolysis with drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or may require surgical intervention via pulmonary thrombectomy.[1]
PND
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea may be caused in part by the depression of the respiratory center during sleep, which may reduce arterial oxygen tension, particularly in patients with interstitial lung disease and reduced pulmonary compliance. Also, in the horizontal position there is redistribution of blood volume from the lower extremities and splanchnic beds to the lungs. In normal individuals this has little effect, but in patients in whom the additional volume cannot be pumped out by the left ventricle because of disease, there is a significant reduction in vital capacity and pulmonary compliance with resultant shortness of breath. Additionally, in patients with congestive heart failure the pulmonary circulation may already be overloaded because the failing left ventricle is suddenly unable to match the output of a more normally functioning right ventricle; causing pulmonary congestion. It is, also, important to note that left-sided heart failure can lead to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary congestion decreases when the patient assumes a more erect position, and this is accompanied by an improvement in symptoms.
p.o.
by mouth
PRN
as needed
pt.
patient
q.i.d.
four times a day
R/O
rule out
Rx
treatment
S/S
signs/symptoms
SOB
shortness of breath
SQ
subcutaneous
The hypodermis, also called the hypoderm, subcutaneous tissue, or superficial fascia is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. (Hypoderm and subcutaneous are from Greek and Latin words, respectively, for "beneath the skin."[1])Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. It is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis is an epidermal layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle. The term also refers to a layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis of plants.

This cell is also used to supervise the outer skin from burns and other such articulates.

The hypodermis is used mainly for fat storage.

A layer of tissue lies immediately below the dermis of vertebrate skin. It is often referred to as subcutaneous tissue though this is a less precise and anatomically inaccurate term. The hypodermis consists primarily of loose connective tissue and lobules of fat. It contains larger blood vessels and nerves than those found in the dermis.
stat.
immediately
t.i.d.
three times a day
TKO
to keep open
URI
upper respiratory infection
V.S.
vital signs
wt.
weight
y.o.
year old
increase
decrease
approximate
not equal
Δ
change
<
less than
>
greater than
+
positive
-
negative
?
questionable
x2
times two
female
male
IO
intraosseous
Intraosseous infusion (IO) is the process of injection directly into the marrow of a bone. This technique is used in emergency situations to provide fluids and medication when an IV line cannot be used.
PR
per rectum
before
¯a
with
¯c
after
¯p
every
¯q
without
¯s
alert and oriented
A&O
abdomen
abd.
against medical advice
AMA
anterior
ant.
aspirin
ASA
twice a day
b.i.d.
bowel movement
BM
blood pressure
BP
blood sugar
BS
body surface area
BSA
complains of
c/o
chief complaint
CC or C/C
congestive heart failure
CHF
Heart failure (HF) often called congestive heart failure (CHF) is generally defined as the inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the needs of the body.[1][2][3] Heart failure can cause a number of symptoms including shortness of breath, leg swelling, and exercise intolerance. The condition is diagnosed with echocardiography and blood tests. Treatment commonly consists of lifestyle measures (such as smoking cessation, light exercise including breathing protocols, decreased salt intake and other dietary changes) and medications. Sometimes it is treated with implanted devices (pacemakers or ventricular assist devices) and occasionally a heart transplant.

Common causes of heart failure include myocardial infarction and other forms of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.[4] The term "heart failure" is sometimes incorrectly used to describe other cardiac-related illnesses, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cardiac arrest, which can cause heart failure but are not equivalent to heart failure.

Heart failure is a common, costly, disabling, and potentially deadly condition.[4] In developed countries, around 2% of adults suffer from heart failure, but in those over the age of 65, this increases to 6–10%.[4][5]
central nervous system
CNS
carbon monoxide
CO
carbon dioxide
CO2
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD), is the co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed.[1] This leads to a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs, causing shortness of breath (dyspnea). In clinical practice, COPD is defined by its characteristically low airflow on lung function tests.[2] In contrast to asthma, this limitation is poorly reversible and usually gets progressively worse over time. In England, an estimated 842,100 of 50 million people have a diagnosis of COPD.[3]

COPD is caused by noxious particles or gas, most commonly from tobacco smoking, which triggers an abnormal inflammatory response in the lung.[4]

The diagnosis of COPD requires lung function tests. Important management strategies are smoking cessation, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and drug therapy (often using inhalers). Some patients go on to require long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.[4]
cerebrospinal fluid
CSF
cerebrovascular accident
CVA
A stroke, also known as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage (leakage of blood).[1] As a result, the affected area of the brain cannot function, which might result in an inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or an inability to see one side of the visual field.[2]

A stroke is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and death. It is the leading cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe and the second leading cause of death worldwide.[3] Risk factors for stroke include old age, hypertension (high blood pressure), previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking and atrial fibrillation.[2] High blood pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke.[2]

A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms, and the patients are typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. Despite not causing identifiable symptoms, a silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future. Conversely, those who have suffered a major stroke are at risk of having silent strokes.[4] In a broad study in 1998, more than 11 million people were estimated to have experienced a stroke in the United States. Approximately 770,000 of these strokes were symptomatic and 11 million were first-ever silent MRI infarcts or hemorrhages. Silent strokes typically cause lesions which are detected via the use of neuroimaging such as MRI. Silent strokes are estimated to occur at five times the rate of symptomatic strokes.[5][6] The risk of silent stroke increases with age, but may also affect younger adults and children, especially those with acute anemia.[5][7]

An ischemic stroke is occasionally treated in a hospital with thrombolysis (also known as a "clot buster"), and some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from neurosurgery. Treatment to recover any lost function is termed stroke rehabilitation, ideally in a stroke unit and involving health professions such as speech and language therapy, physical therapy and occupational therapy. Prevention of recurrence may involve the administration of antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin and dipyridamole, control and reduction of hypertension, and the use of statins. Selected patients may benefit from carotid endarterectomy and the use of anticoagulants.[2]
discontinue
D/C
dead on arrival
DOA
delirium tremors
DT's
alcohol
ETOH
fracture
fx
gastrointestinal
GI
gun shot wound
GSW
hour
h or hr.
headache
H/A
history
Hx
intracranial pressure
ICP
intramuscular
IM
inferior
inf.
intravenous
IV
jugular venous distension
JVD
The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system. It can be useful in the differentiation of different forms of heart and lung disease. Classically three upward deflections and two downward deflections have been described.
The upward deflections are the "a" (atrial contraction), "c" (ventricular contraction and resulting bulging of tricuspid into the right atrium during isovolumetric systole) and "v" = atrial venous filling.
The downward deflections of the wave are the "x" (the atrium relaxes and the tricuspid valve moves downward) and the "y" descent (filling of ventricle after tricuspid opening).
kilogram
kg
laceration
LAC
level of consciousness
LOC
liters per minute
LPM
lactated ringers
LR
myocardial infarction
MI
Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and ensuing oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium).

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck), shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, sweating, and anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom).[1] Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue.[2] Approximately one-quarter of all myocardial infarctions are "silent", that is without chest pain or other symptoms.

Among the diagnostic tests available to detect heart muscle damage are an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac MRI and various blood tests. The most often used blood markers are the creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) fraction and the troponin levels. Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual nitroglycerin.[3]

Most cases of STEMI (ST elevation MI) are treated with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). NSTEMI (non-ST elevation MI) should be managed with medication, although PCI is often performed during hospital admission. In people who have multiple blockages and who are relatively stable, or in a few emergency cases, bypass surgery may be an option, especially in diabetics.

Ischemic heart disease (which includes myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and heart failure when preceded by myocardial infarction) was the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide in 2004.[4] Important risk factors are previous cardiovascular disease, older age, tobacco smoking, high blood levels of certain lipids (triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein) and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, excessive alcohol consumption, the abuse of certain drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamine), and chronic high stress levels.[5][6]
movement of extremities
MOE
motor vehicle collision
MVC
nausea/vomiting
N/V
nasal cannula
NC
no known drug allergies
NKDA
nothing by mouth
NPO
normal saline
NS
nitroglycerin
NTG
oxygen
O2
overdose
OD
pulmonary embolism
P.E.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism). Usually this is due to embolism of a thrombus (blood clot) from the deep veins in the legs, a process termed venous thromboembolism. A small proportion is due to the embolization of air, fat, talc in drugs of intravenous drug abusers or amniotic fluid. The obstruction of the blood flow through the lungs and the resultant pressure on the right ventricle of the heart leads to the symptoms and signs of PE. The risk of PE is increased in various situations, such as cancer or prolonged bed rest.[1]

Symptoms of pulmonary embolism include difficulty breathing, chest pain on inspiration, and palpitations. Clinical signs include low blood oxygen saturation and cyanosis, rapid breathing, and a rapid heart rate. Severe cases of PE can lead to collapse, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.[1]

Diagnosis is based on these clinical findings in combination with laboratory tests (such as the D-dimer test) and imaging studies, usually CT pulmonary angiography. Treatment is typically with anticoagulant medication, including heparin and warfarin. Severe cases may require thrombolysis with drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or may require surgical intervention via pulmonary thrombectomy.[1]
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
PND
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea may be caused in part by the depression of the respiratory center during sleep, which may reduce arterial oxygen tension, particularly in patients with interstitial lung disease and reduced pulmonary compliance. Also, in the horizontal position there is redistribution of blood volume from the lower extremities and splanchnic beds to the lungs. In normal individuals this has little effect, but in patients in whom the additional volume cannot be pumped out by the left ventricle because of disease, there is a significant reduction in vital capacity and pulmonary compliance with resultant shortness of breath. Additionally, in patients with congestive heart failure the pulmonary circulation may already be overloaded because the failing left ventricle is suddenly unable to match the output of a more normally functioning right ventricle; causing pulmonary congestion. It is, also, important to note that left-sided heart failure can lead to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary congestion decreases when the patient assumes a more erect position, and this is accompanied by an improvement in symptoms.
by mouth
p.o.
as needed
PRN
patient
pt.
four times a day
q.i.d.
rule out
R/O
treatment
Rx
signs/symptoms
S/S
shortness of breath
SOB
subcutaneous
SQ
The hypodermis, also called the hypoderm, subcutaneous tissue, or superficial fascia is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. (Hypoderm and subcutaneous are from Greek and Latin words, respectively, for "beneath the skin."[1])Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. It is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis is an epidermal layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle. The term also refers to a layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis of plants.

This cell is also used to supervise the outer skin from burns and other such articulates.

The hypodermis is used mainly for fat storage.

A layer of tissue lies immediately below the dermis of vertebrate skin. It is often referred to as subcutaneous tissue though this is a less precise and anatomically inaccurate term. The hypodermis consists primarily of loose connective tissue and lobules of fat. It contains larger blood vessels and nerves than those found in the dermis.
immediately
stat.
three times a day
t.i.d.
to keep open
TKO
upper respiratory infection
URI
vital signs
V.S.
weight
wt.
year old
y.o.
increase
decrease
approximate
not equal
change
Δ
less than
<
greater than
>
positive
+
negative
-
questionable
?
times two
x2
female
male