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29 Cards in this Set

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Element
Form of matter that has mass, occupies space, and can't be broken down into a different form of matter by physical or chemical means
Atom
The smallest unit of an element that still contains the characteristics of that element
Proton (p+)
+ charged particle. All atoms of the same element have the same amount of protons
Neutron
Uncharged particle in an atom.
Electron (e-)
- charged particle. Atoms have the same amount of electrons as protons. They can be shared or transfered among atoms
Atomic Number
The amount of protons there are in an element (there are always the same amount of protons as electrons)
Mass Number (Atomic Mass)
Amount of neutrons + protons
Isotope
One or more froms of an element's atoms that differ in their number of neutrons.
Chemical Bonds
A bond between the electron structures of atoms or ions
Molecule
Two or more atoms of the same or different atoms chemically bonded
Compounds
A molecule consisting of two or more elements in unvarying proportions like H20. (2 hydrogen, 1 oxygen always)
Mixture
Two or more elements mixed together with varying proportions
Ion
An atom that has gained or lost an electron(s), becoming - or + charged. When it loses one, it becomes + charged, when it gains it becomes - charged.
Ionic Bond
Two ions being held together by the attraction of the opposite charge (+)(-) (-)(+)
Covalent Bond
Strongest bond, the sharing of one or more electrons between atoms or groups of atoms.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
The atoms or atom groups share the electrons equally
Polar Covalent Bond
Polar bonds share them the electrons unequally
Hydrogen Bond
A weak attraction between an electronegative atom (ex. oxygen) and a hydrogen atom. Hydrogen's + charge attracts the atom w/ the - charge
Hydrophilic substances
Polar molecule that easily dissolves in water (ex. sugar)
hydro-water, philo-love
Hydrophobic substances
Nonpolar molecules that strongly resists dissolving in water (ex. oil)
hydro-water, phobia-fear
Solvent
Something that a solute can dissolve in. Water is the universal solvent b/c it dissolves so many things.
Solutes
Something that dissolves in a solvent
Spheres of Hydration
Substances are dissolved after water molecules cluster around ions and keep it dispersed. These clusters are called spheres of hydration.
Hydrogen Ions
They are the same things as free protons.
Hydroxide Ions
A hydroen atom that has gained and electron, therefore being - charged. (OH-)
pH scale
Used to measure the H+ concentration of fluids. The lower the pH is, the higher the acidity. The higher it is, the lower acidity. 7 is pure water
Acids
Substances that give up protons (H+) when dissolved.
Bases
Substances that accept protons when dissolved.
Buffer system
The partnership between a weak acid and the weak base that forms as the acid dissolves in water. They work as a pair to counter shifts in pH.