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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is glass?
68% Sand
12% Soda Ash
10% Limestone
recycled glass used at levels as high as 90% when available
time and place identification
Surface Treatment
coating material applied to outside surface of glass containers
surface lines
Why apply surface treatments?
-preserves container strength
-facilitates flow through glass manufacturers' line and customer's filling line
Glass Bottle Strength
Surface Condition= Breaking Stress (PSI)
Pristine (new) bottle= 40k-50k
moderate abrasions= 10k-20k
deep scratch= approx. 5k
cracks = 1k- 1.5k
-any force applied to the container that cause the glass to stretch, compress, bend, or twist
-increases in load=increase in deformation
low cofefficient of friction (glass to glass)
-organic (cold end) surface coating: stearate, oleric acid, polyethylene
Scratch Resistance
ability to withstand abrasions (glass to glass)
-combination of organic (cold end) and inorganic (hot end) coatings
Hot end Coating
-applied when container is about 1k F
-results in a permanent coating of tin oxide
-provides bonding sites for the cold end coating
-imparts durability to scratch resistance
-enhances label adhesion
Types of Hot End Coatings
-also known as
Cold End Coating
-applied when container is about 250 F
-provides lubricity when dry
Combined Hot and Cold End Coating
-improves durability of scratch resistance, both wet and dry
-preserves container strength
-Best durability-hot end and polyethylene (toughness in physical abuse, permanence, water resistant)
-critical to container light weighting
Factors that Influence Treatment Choice
-product type
-filling line conditions
-labeling machines and adhesives
What is Light Weighting?
the reduction of the amount of glass used to make any given bottle or jar while meeting requirements for the package.
Light Weighting Advantages
-reduces energy costs
-reduces freight costs
-reduces raw materials usage
-increases production speeds
-increases filling line efficiency
-reduces CO2
Manufacturing Process
1. Blow and Blow
2. Press and Blow
3. Narrow Neck Press and Blow
1. Blow and Blow
Manufacturing Process
dependent on uniformity of temperature in gob and molds.
-somewhat variable
-more glass required to maintain minimum thickness
2. Press and Blow
Manufacturing Process
Positive displacement by plunger
-less variable
-better control of glass placement
-more efficient use of glass
Limited to wide mouth finishes
-38mm and larger
3. Narrow Neck Press and Blow
Manufacturing Process
Positive displacement by plunger
-less variable
-better control of glass placement
-more efficient use of glass
Limited to narrow neck finishes
-38mm and smaller
How do we 'Light Weight'?
-redesign container shape, with less surface area
-remove abrupt features in surface
-redistribute glass
-change finish on container
Light Weight Wines
-reduces glass wall thickness
-removed the traditional punt indentation
Success/ Savings:
-annual glass reduced by 2,100 tons
-decreased supply chain greenhouse gases by 14%
-reduced glass weight 14%
-reduced cost on a 10% avg
Container Performance:
Internal Pressure Strength
Static load
-boiler formula and thickness

S=(P x D)/ 2T
Container Performance:
Impact Strength
Dynamic load
-mass, velocity, and stiffness
-intensitivity to weight
Factors influencing Light Weighting in the future
-package design
-customer preferences
-consumer preferences
-global marketplace
-coating technology