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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is omphalocoele?
Intestines don't retract all of the way back into the body
Due to imperfect closure of the umbilical ring
Appears as skin
Usually small intestines covered by protrusion
What is gastroschisis?
Intestines break through the abdominal wall due to rupture
Hirschspring disease?
Lack of innervation of distal portions of colon and rectum due to lack of neural crest migration; no ganglia
Leads to megacolon because of no peristalsis
Foregut derivatives and blood supply?
Ceilac artery

Lung lining
Esophageus lining
Gall bladder
Pharnyx -> thyroid
Branchial pouches
-Eustachian tubes (BP 1)
-Tonsils (BP 2)
-Thymus (BP 3)
-Parathyroids (BPs 3 and 4)
What is the origin of the two layers of the amniotic sac?
The ectoderm and somatic mesoderm (somatoplure)
What is the origin of the two layers of the yolk sac?
The endoderm (+hypoblast) and splanchnic mesoderm (splanchnoplure)
What is the origin of the thyroid?
Endodermal floor of the pharynx
What abdominal organs are retroperitoneal?
What organs derived from the midgut and what is the blood supply?
Superior mesenteric artery

Small intestine
Ascending colon
Proximal part of transverse colon
What organ forms partially in the yolk sac and why?
The small intestines
Because the embryonic liver is initially very large, the SIs are forced out into the yolk sac (herniation)
What mesentary structure suspends the abdominal part of the gut tube and from what is it derived?
The omentum, and it is from visceral mesoderm
What structures derived from hindgut and what is its blood supply?
Inferior mesenteric artery

Distal transverse colon
Descending colon
Part of bladder and urethra
How is the gut innervated?
Primarily from neural crest cells migrating from anterior neural tube into walls of foregut, then down the gut
What can be the result of a VSD?
Congestive heart failure
What is the Tetralogy of Fallot and in what condition is it common?
1.) VSD
2.) Pulmonary stenosis
3.) Right ventricle hypertrophy
4.) Aorta placed over VSD

Often found in DiGeorge Syndrome (22q11 deletion)

Blue baby syndrome at birth
When and where is blood made in utero?
Week 3: Yolk sac blood islands
Week 5: Liver
End of term: Spleen and bone marrow (like adult)
Name the major arterial tracts in the embryo and their locations
1.) Dorsal aorta connects to the aortic arches and the vitelline artery (to the yolk sac)
2.) Umbilical artery attaches with the dorsal aorta (from the maternal circulation)
3.) Vitelline artery attaches to the dorsal aorta; takes old blood to yolk sac
Name the major veins of the embryo
1.) Anterior and posterior cardinal veins receive blood from the dorsal aorta and empty into the common cardinal vein, just posterior to the heart
2.) Vitelline vein provides the embryo with fresh blood from the yolk sac; connects to heart via common cardinal vein
3.) Umbilical vein connects to heart via common cardinal as well
What are the four changes in fetal circulation that take place at birth?
1.) Foramen ovale closes, which allowed communication between right and left atria
2.) Ductus venosis closes, which formerly was a shunt that bypassed the liver.
3.) The umbilical artery is no longer functional (the remaining is attached to the umbilicus and the superficial surface of the bladder)
4.) Ductus arterosis closes, which used to send blood from the pulmonary artery directly into the aorta instead of the lungs
What is horseshoe kidney?
Fusion of two kidneys across the midline at their posterior poles - mesodermal dysfunction
Polycystic kidney disease?
Either autosomal dominant or recessive, resulting in fluid filled cysts, leading to kidney failure
What is hypospadias?
Disorder characterized by a lack of midline closure of the urethra in boys; often due to androgen insuffiency
Where does skeletal muscle come from?
Paraxial mesoderm (except for a few muscles in the face from neural crest)
Where does smooth and cardiac muscle come from?
Splanchnic mesoderm of the lateral plate
Bones from the paraxial mesoderm?
Base and back of skull
Vert column
Into what three layers do somites differentiate?

Caused by signals from adjacent tissues (ectoderm, notochord, neural tube)
Name the three primitive kidney structures (from anterior to inferior)
Describe the fate of:
Pronephros is lost

Mesonephros contains a duct (Wolffian duct) that persists in males but degenerates in females

Metanephros becomes the adult kidney (via branching of the uterine bud)
Describe the path of germ cell migration from the yolk sac
In week 4, from near the base of the allantois, the move along the dorsal mesentary of the hindgut until they reach the genital ridges
what is the origin of the genital ridges and where do they form?
Intermediate mesoderm on the medial side of the mesonephros
What determines sexual genotype?
Expression of SRY

SRY leads to Sertoli and Leydig development

Sertoli produces mullerian inhibiting substance, which leads down the path of male development
What is derived from the mesonephric duct?
Male spermatic ducts:
Seminal vesicles
Vas deferens
What is the fate of the paramesonephric duct?
Lining of the fallopian tubes