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205 Cards in this Set

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Which gene is involved in patterning along the anterior-posterior (head to foot) axis & mediates ectodermal functions?
Sonic hedgehog
Which gene is produced at the apical ectodermal ridge and necessary for proper organization along dorsal-ventral axis (front/back)?
Wnt-7 gene
Which gene is produced at the apical ectodermal ridge and stimulates underlying mesoderm, allowing for lengthening of limbs?
FGF gene (think achondroplasia here)
Which genes code for DNA-binding transcription factors that are involved in the organization of the embryo in a cranial/caudal (head/foot)?
Homebox genes
When does this event occur in embryogenesis?
hCG secretion begins after implantation of blastocyst
Week 1
When does this event occur in embryogenesis?
Bilaminar disk
Week 2 (Rule of twos- two germ layers).

What are the names of the two germ layers?
epiblast, hypoblast
When does this event occur in embryogenesis?
Gastrulation, primitive streak, notochord and neural plate begin to form
Week 3 (rule of threes for week 3- 3 germ layers)

What are the three germ layers?
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
When does this event occur in embryogenesis?
Neural tube formed by neuroectoderm and closes
Week 4
When does this event occur in embryogenesis?
Heart begins to beat, upper and lower limbs form
Week 4 (Rule of 4s- 4 heart chambers, 4 limb buds)
The alar plate is (dorsal/ventral) and will become what part of the spinal cord?
Alar plate is dorsal

Will become the dorsal horns (sensory)
The basal plate is (dorsal/ventral) and will become what part of the spinal cord?
Basal plate is ventral

Will become the ventral horns
*Can think basal = "bottom" because in the pics it's drawn on the bottom (baby is stomach-down)
From which emryologic tissue does this body part come?
Adenohypophysis (Rathke's pouch)
Surface ectoderm

What does the adenohypophysis turn into?
The anterior pituitary
From which emryologic tissue does this body part come?
lens of the eye
Surface ectoderm
From which emryologic tissue does this body part come?
Epithelial linings of oral cavity
Surface ectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Sensory organs of ear
Surface ectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
olfactory epithelium
Surface ectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
epidermis
Surface ectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
salivary, sweat & mammary glands
Surface ectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Brain (inc. neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells)
Neuroectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Pineal gland
Neuroectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Retina
Neuroectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Spinal cord
Neuroectoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
ANS
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Dorsal root ganglia
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
cranial nerves
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
celiac ganglion
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
melanocytes
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla (make catecholamines)
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
parafollicular cells of the thyroid (make calcitonin)
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Schwann cells
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Pia and arachnoid
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Bones of the skull
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Odontoblasts (teeth)
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Aorticopulmonary septum
Neural crest
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Gut tube epithelium
Endoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Lungs
Endoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Liver
Endoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Pancreas
Endoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Thymus
Endoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Thymus
Endoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Parathyroid
Endoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Thyroid follicular cells
Endoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Muscle
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Bone
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
connective tissue
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Serous linings of body cavities (peritoneum)
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Spleen
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Cardiovascular structures
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Lymphatics
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Blood
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Bladder
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Urethra
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Vagina
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Eustachian tube
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Kidneys
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Kidneys
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Adrenal cortex
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Skin dermis
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Testes
Mesoderm
From which embryologic tissue does this body part come?
Ovaries
Mesoderm
What is the job of the notochord and what does it become?
job- induces the ectoderm to form neuroectoderm (aka the neural plate)

becomes- the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disk
What is the difference between organ agenesis and aplasia?
agenesis- organ isn't there and neither is promordial tissue

aplasia- organ isn't there but primordial tissue is

aPlasia - has Primordial tissue
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Renal damage
ACE inhibitors
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Absence of digits/multiple anomalies
Anti-convulsants/x-rays/alkylating agents

The absence of digits is particular for alkylating agents
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
CN VIII toxicity
Aminoglycosides
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Vaginal clear cell carcinoma
Diethylstilbestrol
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Neural tube defects
Folate antagonists (methotrexate)

Inhibitors of folate absorption (valproate, carbamazepine)
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Gongenital goiter/hypothyroidism
Iodide (lack or excess)
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Ebstein's anomaly
Lithium
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Caudal regression syndrome (not commonly)
Maternal diabetes
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Preterm labor, placental problems, IUGR, ADHD
Smoking/nicotine
Name the toxin that causes discolored teeth
Tetracyclines
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
high risk for birth defects and spontaneous abortions
Vitamin A
Name the toxin that causes this birth defect:
Bone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion
Warfarin
What are the chorion and the amnion?
Chorion becomes placenta, amnion is the sac the fetus resides in
If embryo divides before ___ days, it will be dichorionic, diamniotic.
3
If embryo divides before ___ days, it will be monochorionic, diamniotic.
8
If embryo divides after ___ days, it will be monochorionic, monoamniotic and have risk of being conjoined.
8
What makes up the fetal layer of the placenta?
Cytotrophoblast & syncytiotrophoblast

Which is outer, which is inner?
Cyto is inner, syncytio is outer
Which part of the placenta secretes hCG?
The syncytiotrophoblast

Think "Syncytiotrophoblast Secretes"
Meckel's diverticulum results from failure of closure of the ...
Vitelline duct (aka omphalomesenteric duct)
When does obliteration of the vitelline duct occur?
7th week
Given the part of the heart, say what primitive structure it derives from:
Ascending aorta & pulmonary trunk
Truncus arteriosus
Given the part of the heart, say what primitive structure it derives from:
Smooth parts of L & R ventricle
Bulbus cordis
Given the part of the heart, say what primitive structure it derives from:
Trabeculated parts of R & L ventricle
primitive ventricle
Given the part of the heart, say what primitive structure it derives from:
Trabeculated parts of R and L atrium
primitive atrium
Given the part of the heart, say what primitive structure it derives from:
smooth part of R atrium
rt. side of sinus venosus

Note that both have "right" in the name, whereas the left side of the sinus venosus becomes the coronary sinus
Given the part of the heart, say what primitive structure it derives from:
coronary sinus
left side of sinus venosus
Given the part of the heart, say what primitive structure it derives from:
SVC
rt common cardinal and rt anterior cardinal vein.
What's the only part of the heart made from neural crest cells?
The aorticopulmonary septum
What two things eventually fuse together to make the interventricular septum?
The muscular ventricular septum + the AP septum
What two things eventually fuse together to make the interatrial septum?
The superior part of the septum secundum + the inferior part of the septum primum (the valve)
Name the order of locations of fetal hematopoiesis and the weeks when each one occurs.
Yolk sac- 3-8 weeks
Liver- 6-30 weeks
Spleen- 9-28 weeks
Bone marrow- 28 weeks +
Draw out fetal circulation
see p. 125 in FA.
What vessels are found in the umbilical cord?
two arteries (take deox blood back to mom), one vein (takes ox blood to baby).
What is a single umbilical artery associated with?
Congenital/chromosomal abnormalities
What is the name of the shunt from umbilical vein to IVC?
Ductus venosus
What does the ductus venosus become in an adult?
Ligamentum venosum
What does the umbilical vein become in an adult?
Ligamentum teres
What do the umbilical arteries become in an adult?
The medial umbilical ligaments
What blood vessels are the umbilical arteries branches off of?
The internal iliac arteries
What are the drugs that close PDA? Keep it open?
Indomethacin (anti-prostaglandin) helps close it, Prostalandins keep it open.
Name the two parts of the prosencephalon
Telencephalon, diencephalon
Name the two parts of rhomencephalon
metencephalon, myelencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure originate from:
cerebral hemispheres
telencephalon (prosencephalon)
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
basal ganglia
Telencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Hippocampus
Telencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Amygdala
Telencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Thalamus
Diencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Hypothalamus
Diencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
optic n. and tracts
Diencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Midbrain
Mesencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Pons
Metencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Cerebellum
Metencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Medulla
Myelencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Lateral ventricles
Telencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
3rd ventricle
Diencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
Aqueduct
Mesencephalon
Which part of the developing brain did this structure develop from:
4th ventricle
Metencephalon
What two things would you see in CSF in a neural tube defect?
Elevated AFP and actylcholinesterase
Why do you see polyhydramnios in anencephaly?
No swallowing center in brain (bc babdy doesn't have brain)
What gene is associated with holoprosencephaly?
Sonic hedgehog
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation through foramun magnum, with aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephaly + syringomyeleia (fluid in spinal cord), and thoracolumbar myelomeningocele. Dx?
Arnold Chiari II malformation
Large posterior fossa, absent cerebellar vermis, cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle. Can lead to hydrocephalus and spina bifida. Dx?
Dandy Walker
"cape-like" bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in upper extremities with preservation of touch. Dx?
Syringeomyelia
What is most likely to be damaged in syringomyelia?
The crossing fibers of the spinothalamic tract.
(Remember, spinothalamic carries pain and temp. and decussates in the spinal cord)
Which congenital malformation is associated with syringomyelia?
Arnold Chiari type II malformation
At what vertebral level is syringomyelia most common?
C8-T1
Which aortic arch forms the maxillary artery?
1
Which aortic arch forms the stapedial artery and hyoid artery?
2
Which aortic arch forms the common carotid and proximal part of the internal carotid?
3rd
Which aortic arch forms the aortic arch (right) and proximal part of subclavian artery (left)?
4th
Which aortic arch forms the proximal part of the pulmonary arteries and the ductus arteriosus (on left)?
6th
What is the germ cell layer of the branchial clefts, arches, and pouches?
Clefts- ectoderm
Arches- mesoderm
Pouches- endoderm
What does the first branchial cleft develop into?
The external auditory meatus
What does the second-fourth branchial cleft form?
temporary cervical sinuses.

What if they persisit?
Branchial cleft cyst
What part of neck is branchial cleft cyst found in?
Lateral neck
What are the derivatives of branchial arch 1 that don't start with M or have an M in them?
incus, later pterygoids, anterior belly of digastric, tensor veli palatini, anterior 2/3 of tongue (inc. sensation), CNV2 and 3
Mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities. What is the syndrome and what causes it?
Treacher Collins, failure of 1st arch neural crest cells to migrate
What are the derivatives of the second branchial arch that don't start with S?
lesser horn of hyoid, muscles of facial expression, posterior belly of digastric muscle, CN VII
What are the derivatives of the 3rd branchial arch?
greater horn of the hyoid, stylopharyngeous muscle, CN IX (stylopharyngeus)
What are cartilage derivatives of cranial nerves 4-6?
throid, cricoid, arytenoids, corniculate, cuneiform
What are the muscle and nerve derivatives of the 4th pharyngeal arch?
most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid muscle (larynx), levator veli palatini
What are the muscle and nerve derivatives of the 6th pharyngeal arch?
all instrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid, CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)
Branchial arches 3 & 4 form which part of the tongue?
The posterior 1/3
Which branchial pouch forms the middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, and mastoid air cells?
Pouch #1
Which branchial pouch forms the inferior parathyroids?
Pouch #3
Which branchial pouch forms the epithelial lining of the palatine tonsil?
Pouch #2
Which branchial pouch forms the thymus?
Pouch #3
Which branchial pouch forms the superior parathyroids?
Pouch #4
What is DiGeorge syndrome caused by?
Aberrant development of 3rd and 4th pouches --> thymic aplasia and parathyroid aplasia
What cancers characterize MEN2A?
Pheochromocytoma (neural crest)

Parathyroid tumor (endoderm)

Parafollicular thyroid (medullary tumor of thyroid) - (neural crest)
Describe the motor innervation of the tongue.
The whole thing is innervated by cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal)
Describe the sensory (pain) innervation of the tongue.
The anterior 2/3 - CN V(3)

The posterior 1/3 (mostly CN IX, far back is CN X)
Describe the sensory (taste) innervation of the tongue.
The anterior 1/3 - CN VII

The posterior 1/3 - mostly CN IX, far back is CN X
What is the name for the normal remnant of the thyroglossal duct?
Foramen cecum
How would you tell a thyroglossal duct cyst from a branchial cleft cyst?
Thyroglossal duct cyst is midline and will move with swallowing, branchial cleft cyst is lateral
Cleft lip is the failure of fusion of?
Maxillary and medial nasal processes
Cleft palate is the failure of fusion of (3)?
Either:
Lateral palatine processes with each other,
Lateral palatine processes with nasal septum, or lateral palatine processes with the median palatine process
What's the difference between nasal processes and nasal septum?
Nasal processes are involved in cleft lip, nasal septum is involved in cleft palate.
How is the foregut defined?
pharynx - duodenum
How is the midgut defined?
duodenum to transverse colon (first 2/3)
How is the hindgut defined?
distal transverse colon - rectum
Rostral fold closure (GI) defects lead to ?
Sternal defects
Lateral fold closure defects (GI) can lead to?
omphalocele or gastroschisis.
What's the difference between omphalocele and gastroschisis?
Gastroschisis- there's no peritoneum covering, omphalocele- it's covered in peritoneum
Caudal fold closure (GI) failure can lead to?
Bladder exstrophy (bladder exposed to outer world)
What GI defect is trisomy 21 associated with?
Duodenal atresia
What are jejunal, ileal, and colonic atresia due to?
Vascular accident
In what week does the midgut herniate out through the umbilical ring?
6
In what week does the midgut return to the umbilical cavity & rotate around SMA?
10th
What's the most common form of tracheoesophageal fistula?
Blind upper esophagus connected to trachea
What are the symptoms of tracheoesophageal fistula?
Cyanosis (food in trachea), choking, and vomiting with feeding, air bubble in stomach on CXR, polyhydramnios (baby can't swallow amniotic fluid), pneumonitis
Baby has palpable "olive" mass in the epigastric region and nonbilious projectile vomiting at around 2 weeks of age. Dx?
pyloric stenosis. WILL be vomiting acid so you'll see alkalosis, hypochloremia, and hypokalemia
Pancreas is derived from what part of the gut?
Foregut
Which parts of the pancreas come only from the ventral bud?
Uncinate process
Which parts of the pancreas come from the dorsal + ventral buds?
pancreatic head and main pancreatic duct
Which parts of the pancreas come from the dorsal pancreatic bud?
body, tail, isthmus, and accessory pancreatic duct
What embryonic tissue layer does the spleen arise from and what artery supplies it?
Mesoderm, supplied by celiac artery (which is a gut artery so that's kind of unusual)
What's the embryonic kidney that appears first and what happens to it?
Pronephros, stays until week 4 and then degenerates
What's the embryonic kidney that appears second and what happens to it?
Mesonephros, acts as the kidney during the first trimester and then contributes to the male genital system
What's the permamanent embryonic kidney and when does it arise?
Metanephros, first appears during 5th week of gestation
What is the ureteric bud derived from and what does it give rise to?
Derived from the caudal end of the mesonephros (the second kidney structure); gives rise to the ureter, pelvises, calyces, and collecting ducts
What parts of the kidney derive from the metanephric mesenchyme?
The glomerulus and renal tubules to distal convuluted tubule
What section of the kidney is the last to canalize and most common site of obstruction in the fetus?
The ureteropelvic junction
Baby has bilateral renal agenesis, oligohydramnios, limb deformities, facial deformities, and pulmonary hypoplasia. Diagnosis and cause?
Diagnosis- Potter's syndrome

Cause- malformation of ureteric bud
What artery does a horseshoe kidney get trapped under?
inferior mesenteric
Is female or male reproductive development the default?
female
In female reproductive development, which duct degenerates and which develops?
paramesonephric duct develops, mesonephric duct degenerates
In male reproductive development, what does the SRY gene do?
Produces tests-determining factor --> testes development
In male reproductive development, what do the Sertoli cells do?
Release mullerian inhibitory factor and suppress the develpment of the paramesonephric ducts
In male reproductive development, what do the Leydig cells do?
release androgens and stimulate the development of the mesonephric ducts
What structures does the mesonephric duct (in males) develop into?
Seminal vesicles, Epididymis, Ejaculatory duct, and Ductus deferens (SEED)
*not prostate
What structures does the paramesonephric duct develop into (in women)?
fallopian tube, uterus, upper 1/3 of vagina.
What is the embryological origin of the lower 2/3 of the vagina?
The urogenital sinus
What does bicornuate uterus result from?
Incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts.
Name the male & female (adult) derivative(s) of this structure:
Genital tubercle
Male- glans penis, corpus cavernosum and spongiosum

Female- glans clitoris, vestibular bulbs
Name the male & female (adult) derivative(s) of this structure:
urogenital sinus
Male- bulbourethral glands (of Cowper), Prostate gland

Female- greater vestibular glands (of Bartholin), Urethral and paraurethral glands (of Skene)
Name the male & female (adult) derivative of this structure:
Urogenital folds
Male- ventral shaft of penis (penile urethra)

Female- labia minora
Name the male & female (adult) derivative of this structure:
Labiosacral swelling
Male- scrotum

Female- labia majora
Name two differences between hypospadias and epispadias.
1) Hypospadias- hole is inferior, epispadias- hole is superior (dorsal)

2) Hypospadias is due to failure of urethral folds to close, epispadias is due to faulty positioning of the genital tubercle
Is epi or hypo spadias more common?
hypo
What pathology of the bladder is associated with epispadias?
Exstrophy of the bladder (bladder exposed to outside world)
Name the male and female remnant:
Gubernaculum
Male- anchors testes within scrotum

Female- orvarian ligament and round ligament of uterus
Name the male and female remnant:
Processus vaginalis (evagination of peritoneum)
Male- forms tunica vaginalis

Female- obliterated