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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
2 shunts in embryo heart
Ductis arteriosus + foramen ovale
Where do cardia precursor cells come from
Epiblast, implant in splanchnic mesoderm
Where do blood islands located
Yolk sac
what suspends heart agains back wall of embryo
Dorsal mesentery
What holds heart in place
Serous tissue
3 layers of heart tube
Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium
Where do layers of heart tube derive from
Epiblast then mesoderm
Name parts of cardiac tube
Bulbus cordis
Primitive ventricle
Primitive right atrium
Sinus venosus
By what day does heart form loop
Day 21
Where do paired heart tubes form
Cephalic region
What does truncus arteriosus become in adult
Proximal aorta and proximal pulmonary artery
What does bulbus cordis become in adult
smooth parts of right ventricle (conus arteriosus) and left ventricle
What does primitive ventricle become in adult
Right and left ventricles
What does primitive atrium become in adult
Right and left atria
What does sinus venosus become in adult
smooth part of right atrium, coronary sinus and oblique vein
Most common defect of atrial septal defect
Patent foramen ovale
Foramen ovale
Communication between right and left atria that is formed by walls of sepum primum and septum secundum
What does foramen ovale do
Allows blood to pass from venous to arterial side without going to lungs
Dextrocardia
Heart is located on the right side, isolated misplaced heart often accompanied by other anomalies.
Name of anomaly when all of organs are transposed
Situs inversus
Situs inversus is usually accompanied by
Kartageners syndrome - immotile cilia caused by defect in dynein arms results in lung disease and male sterility
When does ductus arteriosus close
First days of life
Veins from which sinus venosus receive blood
Vitelline - drain guts
Umbilical
Cardinal - drain body wall
When does great venous shift from left to right occur
5th week of gestation
Name two types of endocardial cushions
-Between bulbus cordis and truncus - from neural crest and serve to partition truncus
Between atria and ventricle - from splanchnic mesoderm amd partition atria, ventricles and AV canals
Primitive ventricle forms...
Left ventricle
Bulbus cordis forms
Truncus cordis + right ventricle
Truncus arteriosus
Aorta + pulmonary artery
What day does the heart start to beat
Day 22
What day does conducting system appear
Day 25
Describe atrial septal defects
Can involve persistent osteum secundum or common atrium (no septum)
Also can be defect in endocardial cushions or involving sinus venosum
Probe patency - very common - 10-15%
Describe ventricular septal defects
Typically involve membranous portion of septum
Clinical consequences depend on size of defect
Large defect can cause left to right shunting of blood
Small defects may close spontaneously
Transposition of great vessels
Septum that normally divides aorta and pulmonary trunk spirals in opposite direction
So-
-Aorta delivers blood from RA
-Results in cyanotic heart disease
-Normally seen with other defects
-If no surgery, will live only few months
Pulmonary atresia
pulmonary trunk has no lumen, blood flow depends on paten ductus arteriosus
Usually requires heart lung transplant
Aortic atresia
Fusion of aortic valve
Tetralogy of Fallot results from
inadequate neural crest
Tetralogy of Fallot consists from
Pulmonary Stenosis
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Overriding aorta
Ventricular septal defect
All arteries, veins, lymph channels come from
MESODERM
Extraembryonic vessels come initially from
Yolk sac
Blood cells come from
Yolk sac - liver- spleen, thymus, bone marrow
When do pharyngeal arches form
4th-5th weeks
Arches I and II supply
head and neck
Arch 3 forms
Common carotid + internal carotid artery
Arch 4 forms
right subclavian artery + left aortic arch
Arch 6 forms
right pulmonary artery + left ductus arteriosus
Vitelline arteries include
Celiac
Superior mesenteric
Inferior mesenteric
All supply gut
Branches from aorta
Intercostal
Middle suprarenal
Renal
Gonadal
Umbilical arteries come from
Aorta splits into right and left common iliac arteries.
Right common iliac artery splits into external and internal iliac arteries. Internal iliac gives rise to rght and left umbilical arteries
Which veins form hepatic portal system
Vitelline veins
Only one umbilical vein is left - is it right or left
Left
What does left umbilical vein form after birth
Ligamentum teres hepatis
What does ductus venosum form after birth
Ligamentum venosum
Name initial 4 cardinal veins
Right and left anterior cardinal veins
Right and left posterior cardinal veins
Which cardinal veins form during 5th, 6th and 7th weeks
Subcardinal - drain kidneys
Sacrocardinal - drain lower extremities
Supracardinal - drain body wall
What defect do you get if supracardinal vein persists
Double inferior vena cava
When do lymphatic vessels start to form
Week 6 from mesoderm
Name lymph sacs in embryo
2 jugular lymph sacs
2 iliac lymph sacs
1 retroperitoneaL
Cisterna chyli - unpaired sac forms near junction of lumbr lymph trunks
Lymphocytes derive from
Stem cells in yolk sac
Two parts of lateral mesoderm
Splanchnic and somatic
Cleft sternum
Ventral body wall defect, results from lack of fusion of sternum
Ectopis cordis
Heart protrudes through sternal defect and lies outside of body
What forms parietal layer of serous membranes
Somatic mesoderm
What forms visceral layer of serous membrane
Splanchnic mesoderm
Visceral and parietal layers are continuous with each other as..
Dorsal mesentery
Pericardioperitoneal canals
Large openings at each side of foregut
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is caused by
failure of pleuroperitoneal membranes to close pericardioperitoneal canals