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41 Cards in this Set

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Embryo development
wk1
wk2
wk3
wk3-8
wk4
wk10
Wk1: blastocyst implantation
Wk2: bilaminar disk
within wk3: gastrulation, notochord and neural plate begin to form
Wk3-8: organogenesis, neural tube is formed, extremely succeptible to teratogens
wk4: heart begins to beat, primitive limb buds
wk10: male and female genitalia
2nd wk
rule of 2s
2 germ layers -bilaminar disk - epiblast and hypoblast:
epiblast- (primitive ectoderm) invaginates to form primitive streak - which gives rise to intraembryonic mesoderm and endoderm
2 cavities: yolk sac, amniotic cavity
2 components to placenta: syntiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast
3rd wk
rule of 3
3 germ layers (grastrula)
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
Ectoderm

adenohypophysis, sensory epith, neurohypophysis, schwann cells, odontoblasts, pineal gland, epnedymal cells, astrocytes cns neurons, adrenal medulla, pia arachnoid, celiac ganglion C cells of thyroid,
Surface: adenohypophysis, lens of eye, sensory epithelium,
Neuroectoderm: neurohypophysis, CNS neurons, astrocytes, oligos, astrocytes, pineal gland, ependymal cells
Neural crest: schwann cells, cranial nerves, adrenal medulla, ANS, celiac ganglion, pia arachnoid, thyroid cartilage and bones of skull, odontoblasts
Mesoderm, endoderm
mesoderm: dura mater, CT< muscle bone, cardiovasc stx, lymph, blood, UG stx, serous linings of body cavities (peritoneum), spleen, adrenal cortex, kids
endoderm: gut tube epith and derivatives (liver, lungs, pancr, thymus, parathyroid gland, thyroid follicular cells)
Teratogens
ACEi
Cocaine
Iodide
13 cis retinoic acid
tobacco
warfarin/ Xray
ACEi: kidney damage
Cocaine: abnl fetal development, addiction
Iodide: hypothyroid, congenital goiter
13 cis retinoic acid: high risk for birth defects
tobacco: preterm labor, ADD, placental prob
warfarin/ Xray: multitudes
Twins
Monozygotic
Dizygotic
monozygote: 1 placenta, 1 chorion, 2 amniotic sacs -
dizygotic (fraternal): 2 of everything -
monozyotic: 2 of everything - possible fused placenta
Umbilical cord

1 umbilical art
2 umbilical arteries - to take away deoxygenated blood from fetus from the fetal internal iliacs
1 umbilical vein - supplies oxygenated blood to fetus
1 umb art: congenital and Cr anomalies
Allantoic duct fx
to remove nitrogenous waste from fetal bladder
Truncus arteriosis
Bulbus Cordis
Primitive ventricle
primitive atria
Left horn of sinus venosis
Right horn of sinus venosis
Rt common cardinal vein and rt ant comon card vein
Truncus arteriosus: aorta and pulm artery
Bulbus Cordis: smooth part of LV+RV
Primitive ventricle: trabeculated LV and RV
Primitive atria: trabeculated RA and LA
Lt horn of sinus venosis: coronary sinus
Rt horn of sinus venosis: smooth part of RA
Rt common cardina vein +rt ant common card vein: SVC
HbA
HbA2
HbF
HbA: 2alpha, 2beta
HbA2: 2alpha, 2 delta - 2.5%
HbF: 2alpha, 2 gamma
Fetal erythropoiesis
(4)
1. Yolk Sac: 3-8 wk
2. Liver: 6-30wks
3. Spleen: 9-28wks
4. Marrow: 28wks on
Fetal circ
1. Placenta to umbilical vein to portal vein to Ductus venosus to IVC
2. RA + RV to Foramen ovale (mostly) to LA + LV to aorta (to head)
OR
3. SVC with deoxy blood to RA+RV to Pulm artery to ductus venosus to legs
4. Descending aorta or Ductus arteriosus
5. Internal iliacs to umbilical arteries to placenta
PDA closure
incr in O2 from lungs leads to decr PG leading to closure of Ductus arteriosus

can also give indomethacin
Fetal postnatal derivatives
Umbilical vein
Umbilical Art
Ductus Arteriosus/venosus
Allantois/urachus
1. Umb vein: ligamentum teres hepatis
2. Umb art: medial umb ligaments
3. Ligamentum arteriosus/venosus
4. Allantois/urachus: median ligament
Aortic Arch derivatives
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th
1st: maxillary art
2nd: stapeidal art + hyoid art
3rd: common carotid + proximal int carotid
4th: Rt-subclavian art, Lt-aortic arch
6th: pulm art, ductus arteriosis
Derivation
Brachial: cleft, arch, pouch
Cleft: ectoderm
arch: mesoderm, neural crest
pouch: endoderm
Brachial arches
1,2,3,4,6
1st - V2 + V3, Meckels cartilage: mandible, MALLEUS, INCUS, sphenomandibular lig, muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, ant belly digastric, tensor tympani, TENSOR VELI PALATINI, ant 2/3 of tongue
2nd - VII - Reicherts cartilage: stapes, styloid process, stapedius, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid lig, post belly of digastric
3rd - IX - stylopharyngeus, greater horn of hyoid
4th: X (sup laryngeal) most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatini
6th: X (recurrent laryngeal), all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
4th+6th: cartilages - thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, corniculate, cuneiform
Tongue development
Anterior 2/3: forms from 1st arch, taste -7 + sensation V3
Post 1/3: forms from 3rd and 4th arches, taste 9, sensation 9, except extreme posterior is 10
Taste - solitary nucleus 7,9,10
Pain - V3, 9, 10
Brachial cyst
persistant 2-4th brachial cleft
1st brachial cleft
develops into external auditory meatus
Ear development
Malleus + Incus: 1st arch - tensor tympani V3
Stapes: 2nd arch, stapedius, 7
Foramen cecum
nl remnant of thyroglossal duct
Most common site of ectopic thyroid tissue
tongue
Cleft lip
cleft palate
Cleft lip - failure of fusion of 1' plate - maxillary and medial nasal procesus
Cleft (upper) palate: failure of 2' plate - lateral palatine process, nasal septum, median palatine process
Diaphragm
1. septum transversum
2. pleuroperitoneal folds
3. dorsal mesentery of eosphagus
4. body wall
mesonephric duct
wolffian duct: seminal vesicles, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens
paramesonephric duct
fallopian tube, uterus, part of vagina
Origin of
pia
dura
arachnoid
ependymal cells
cranial nerves
pineal
Surface: adenohypophysis, lens of eye, sensory epithelium,
Neuroectoderm: neurohypophysis, CNS neurons, astrocytes, oligos, astrocytes, pineal gland, ependymal cells
Neural crest: schwann cells, cranial nerves, adrenal medulla, ANS, celiac ganglion, pia arachnoid, thyroid cartilage and bones of skull, odontoblasts
Fetal quickening
first mvmt at 8wks
Metanephric duct
same as uteric bud - develops into the calyces and ureter etc
Primitive streak
epiblast - leading to mesoderm and endoderm
Becomes the notocord which is made up of nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disk
most common cause of ASD
incomplete fusion of septum primum and septum secundum
derivation of the greater omentum
dorsal mesogastrium
what does the ventral mesentery become
Falciform ligament, ligamentum teres, lesser omentum
Maternal portion of the placenta
mother produces the capillary bed that forms the
Lacunar network
Ostium secundum defect
ASD
sx appear late in childhood or even in 3rd decade
when symptomatic exercise intolerance is manifest.
systolic ejection murmur - from the larger vol crossing the RV outflow tract into the pulm artery.
wide fixed split of S2 bc of incr RV volume is incr bc of the size of the atrial shunt.
Septation of the atria
Growth of the septum primum dnwd twd endocardial cushions
The orifice that remains is hte ostium primum. The endocardial cushions fuse with the septum septum primum, the ostium secundum.
Then the septum secundum grow dnwd and 2gether with a flap of the ostrium primum forms the forament ovale.
VSD
muscular IV septum develops in the floor of the ventricle and grows twd the endocardial cusions.
The membranous IV septum then forms by fusion of the right bulbar ridge, the left bulbar ridge and the endocardial cusions.
Failure of complete closure at either step results in muscular or membranous VSD, respectively.
ostrium secundum
nl forms within the septum primum b4 the ostium primum closes by fusion of the septum primum with the endocardial cushions. Failure of the ostium secundum to form would lead to embryonic death bc there would be no pathway for blood to pass form RA to LA when teh ostium primum closes thus depriving the embryo of oxygenated blood.
Septum primum
most it nl disappears
the part that remains forms the valve forament ovale. This part of the septum primum nl does not fuse with the septum secundum during prenatal life. At birth the valve of the forament ovale is pushed against the septum secundum as a result of incr press. Fusion does not nl occur at this time but usually occurs later in life.