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43 Cards in this Set

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Branchial Appartus
**Composed of branchial clefts (grooves) + arches + pouches

Clefts --> derived from ectoderm

Arches --> derived from mesoderm and NC

Pouches --> derived from endoderm

**CAP**
Branchial Arch 1 Derivatives
Meckel's Cartilage:
=Mandible, Malleus, Incus, sphenoMandibular ligament

Muscles
=Muscles of mastication (temporalis, Masseter, lateral + medial pterygoid), Mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, anterior 2/3 of tongue

Nerve = CNV2 and CNV3
Branchial Arch 2 Derivatives
**Reichert's Cartilage
=Stapes, Styloid process, Lesser horn of the hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament

**Muscles
=muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, posterior belly of the diagastric

Nerve = CNVII
Branchial Arch 3 Derivatives
**Cartilage = greater horn of the hyoid

**Sylopharyngeus

CNIX
Branchial Arch 4-6 Derivatives
Cartilages
=thyroid, cricoid, arytendoids, corniculate, cuneiform

Muscles--4th Arch:
=most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatini

Muscles--6th Arch:
=all intrinsic muscles of the larynx EXCEPT CRICOTHYROID

4th Arch --> CNX (superior laryngeal branch
6th Arch --> CNX (recurrent laryngeal branch)
What forms the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
**Arches 3 and 4
Contributions of arch 5?
NONE
Branchial Arch Innervation
Arch I --> CN V2 and V3

Arch II --> CN VII

Arch III --> CN IX

Arch IV and VI --> CN X
Tongue Development
**1st branchial arch forms the anterior 2/3
=sensation via CNV3
=taste via CN7

**3rd and 4th arches form the posterior 1/3
=sensation and taste mainly from CNIX
=the EXTREME posterior from CNX

**Motor innervation = CNXII
Branchial Cleft Derivatives
**1st cleft --> external auditory meatus

**2nd-4th clefts --> temporary cervical sinuses
=eventually obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme
So what can a peristent cervical sinus lead to?
=branchial cyst in LATERAL neck

recall: thyroglossal duct cyst in MIDLINE neck
Malleus/incus
1st arch
Stapes
2nd arch
Tensor tympani
(V3)

=1st arch
Stapedius
(VII)

2nd arch
External auditory meatus
1st cleft
Eardrum, eustachian tube
1st branchial membrane

=branchial membranes located at juncctions of clefts w/ pouches
1st Pouch
=middle ear cavity
=eustachial tube
=mastoid ear cells

**1st pouch contributes to endoderm-lined structures of ear
2nd Pouch
=epithelial lining of palatine tonsil
3rd Pouch
**3rd pouch contributes to 3 structures

DORSAL WINGS --> inferior parathyroids

VENTRAL WINGS --> THYMUS
4th Pouch
**Superior parathyroids
Abberant Development of the 3rd and 4th pouches?
=DiGeorge Syndrome

**T-cell deficiency (=thymic aplasia) + hypocalcemia (=failure to parathyroid development--i.e. tetany)
Thyroid Development
**Thyroid diverticulum arises from the floor of hte primitive pharynx
=descends into neck CONNECTED to the tongue by the thyroglossal duct (normally disappears BUT may persist as a pyramidal lobe of the thyroid)
What is a NORMAL remnant of the thyroglossal duct?
=Foramen ceccum
Most common ectopic thyroid tissue site?
TONGUE
Cleft Lip
**Failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes (=formation of primary palate)
Cleft Palate
**Failure to fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum and/or the median palatine process (=formation of the SECONDARY palate)
What is the DIAPHRAGM derived from?
**Several Parts Build Diaphragm:

1) Septum transversum
2) Pleuroperitoneal folds
3) Body wall
4) Dorsal mesentary of the esophagus
Innervation of the Diaphragm
C 3, 4, 5
Devevlopment of the Pancreas
**Pancreas is derived from foregut
What does the VENTRAL pancreatic bud become?
=pancreatic head
=uncinate process (lower half of head)
=main pancreatic duct
What does the DORSAL pancreatic bud become?
**everything else
=body
=tail
=isthmus
=accessory pancreatic duct
Spleen Development
**Arises from dorsal mesentery but is supplied by the artery of the foregut
What is annular pancreas?
**Ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds abnormally encircle the duodenum
=forms a ring of pancreatic tissue that may cause duodenal narrowing
What defines the foregut?
Pharynx to duodenum
Midgut?
duodenum to transverse colon
Hindgut?
distal transverse colon to rectum
Kidney Embryology Timeline
1) Pronephros = week 4
2) Mesonephros = 1st trimester
3) Metanephros = permanent
Genital Ducts
1) Mesonephric (Woffian) Duct

2) Paramesonephric (Mullerian) Duct
Mesonephric Duct
**Develops into SEED
=seminal vesicles
=epididymis
=ejaculatory duct
=ductus deferns
Paramesonephric Duct
**Develops into:
=fallopian tube
=uterus
=part of vagina
What is secreted in males that will form their final genitalia?
1) MIF
=secreted by TESTES --> supresses development of paramesonephric ducts in males

2) Increased androgens cause development of mesonephric ducts
Male/Female Genital Homologues
=